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Zoology

Metazoa

metazoa

Metazoa, are multicellular organisms generally recognized as animals. In the past, protozoa and metazoa were considered animals. In fact, metazoans reflected descent from a protozoan ancestor. Now, by animal we mean only the multicellular metazoa, known as Animalia. Metazoa are motile, heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes. Compared to protozoa, metazoans are large organisms. Body structure Metazoans have […]

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Pterygota

The Pterygota (from Ancient Greek πτερυγωτός, pterugōtós, “winged”) are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The systematics of Pterygotes is essentially based on metamorphosis and

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Aculeata

Aculeata is a subclade of Hymenoptera. The name is a reference to the defining feature of the group, which is the modification of the ovipositor into a sting (thus, the group could be called “stinging wasps”, though the group also contains the ants and the bees). In other words, the structure that was originally used to

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Eumetazoa

The eumetazoa (Eumetazoa, Butschli, 1910) (from the Greek εὖ [eu], good/true + μετά [half], above + ζῷον [zóon], animal), also known as Diploblasts, Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa, represent a subkingdom to which the vast majority of animal organisms belong. In them, the remarkable histological differentiation into true tissues has always suggested a phylogenetic position above the

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Protostome [protostomia]

Protostomia (/ˌproʊtəˈstoʊmi.ə/) is the clade of animals once thought to be characterized by the formation of the organism’s mouth before its anus during embryonic development. This nature has since been discovered to be extremely variable among Protostomia’s members, although the reverse is typically true of its sister clade, Deuterostomia.[1][2] Some examples of protostomes are nematodes,

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Ecdysozoa

Ecdysozoa (/ˌɛkdɪsoʊˈzoʊə/) is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla. The Ecdysozoa is one of the two large subdivisions within the Protostomia, a group in which the mouth develops from the first opening to develop in the embryo. In turn, the Protostomia belongs to a larger

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Atelocerata [Tracheata]

Atelocerata is a proposed clade of arthropods that includes Hexapoda (insects and a few related taxa) and Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes, and similar taxa), but excludes Crustacea (such as shrimp and lobsters) and Chelicerata (such as spiders and horseshoe crabs). The name is currently used interchangeably with Tracheata.[1] or Uniramia sensu stricto. It is an extensive division

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Fauna

The fauna is constituted by the whole of the animal species that populate a determined biological environment, a region, a geographic territory, or that has characterized a determined geologic period; it can comprise the autochthonous species and the immigrated species become by now indigenous, as well as the species introduced by the man and gone encounter to

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Zoology

Zoology (from the Greek: zoon = animal; logos = discourse) is the biological discipline that deals with the study of animals (or metazoans) and protozoa, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior. The latter, although not real animals, due to biological similarities and phylogenetic affinity, in the past were considered effective members of the animal kingdom and

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Wasp

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade but are paraphyletic concerning bees and ants.

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Vespoidea

The Vespoidea are a superfamily of wasps in the order Hymenoptera, although older taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization, particularly in their recognition of a now-obsolete superfamily Scolioidea, as well as the relationship to ants. The Vespoidea contains well-known insects such as the social wasps and ants as well as less well-known insects such

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Trilobite

Trilobites are a group of formerly numerous marine animals that disappeared in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, though they were in decline prior to this killing blow, having been reduced to one order in the Late Devonian extinction. Trilobites belong to the phylum Arthropoda. They share arthropod characteristics with other members of the phylum, including insects, arachnids,

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Tactopoda [Arthropodoidea]

Tactopoda (from Greek taktos, ordered, and poda, feet, “with reference to the alleged well-formed stepping motion that characterises the group”) or Arthropodoidea is a proposed clade of protostomes that includes the phyla Tardigrada and Euarthropoda, supported by various morphological observations. Anatomic arguments for the tactopoda monophyly include similarities in the anatomies of head, legs, and muscles between

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Species

The species is at the basis of the classification of living organisms, being the lowest hierarchically obligatory taxonomic level. The choice of an univocal and universal criterion to identify species is however difficult, especially because they are not static entities, but they change in time and space and, therefore, what we observe is a moment of an

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. These differences may consist: Often, sexual dimorphism counts for more than one of the above-mentioned characteristics: for example, male peacocks are larger than females,

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Predation

Predation is a type of interaction in which one organism uses another organism of a different species as a food source. It is called predation in both the animal and plant kingdoms. Through predation, predators are able to play a key role in the food chain, keeping the prey population in check and promoting the

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Pompilidae

Hymenoptera, Apocrita insect family; cosmopolitan. Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps, spider-hunting wasps, or pompilid wasps. Up to 7 cm long, they have an enlarged head, large eyes, long antennae, an elongated abdomen, and reduced or missing wings; the females have a sting connected with poisonous glands, with which they paralyze spiders, on which they

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Parasitoid

A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host, at the host’s expense and results in the death of the host. Parasitoids can be classified as either endo- or ectoparasitoids with idiobiont or koinobiont developmental strategies. Endoparasitoids live within their host’s body, while ectoparasitoids feed on the host from outside.

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Myriapoda

myriapoda centipedes

Myriapods comprise millipedes, centipedes, and their relatives and have many body segments, each segment bearing one or two pairs of legs (or in a few cases being legless). They are sometimes grouped with the hexapods. The name Myriapoda appears in Latreille’s “Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des crustacés et insectes” in 1802; the term is a

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Mutillidae

The mutillidae are a family of apocrita hymenopterous insects, including about 7000 species; cosmopolitan, especially in the hot climate regions of Australia and South America. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Pompiloidea Family Mutillidae Modest in size, their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair, which

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Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal’s body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Present metamorphosis are organisms that at birth are quite different both morphologically and functionally from the adult: for example, the pluteus, larva of echinoderms,

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Larva

A larva (plural larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. In addition to anatomical and physiological characteristics, larvae often have completely different habitats, locomotion, and feeding habits than adults, allowing them to occupy

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Insect (insecta)

Insects (or Insecta in scientific Latin; from the word insectum “cut, divided”) belong to the Class of the Arthropoda Phylum, which, after the systematic revisions from the last decades of the 20th century, was included in the Hexapoda Superclass, they are considered as the largest group in the animal kingdom on Earth: the species described are over a million and their

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