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Thermodynamics

Thermodispersion

Thermodispersion is the term used to indicate the set of processes by which the release of heat from the body surface is realized. Thermodispersion together with thermogenesis (heat production) contributes to keeping the body temperature constant (thermoregulation). Thermodispersion is particularly important in case of increased body temperature (fever), which requires an extra supply of fluids; it […]

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Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons, that takes place in a solid, liquid, or aeriform medium (inside a single body or two bodies in contact with each other). Microscopic explanation Heat transfer occurs naturally from the higher temperature zones to those with lower temperatures. Thermal energy

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Thomson effect

Thomson effect, discovered by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1854, is a thermoelectric effect that is manifested with the onset of a gradient of electric potential (and therefore an electromotive force, called in this case Thomson electromotive force) in a conducting material, when it is subjected to a temperature gradient. In qualitative terms, the explanation

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Peltier effect

The Peltier effect discovered by Jean Charles Athanase Peltier in 1834 is a thermoelectric phenomenon that occurs when in an electrical circuit consisting of two different metallic conductors (or even semiconductors), placed in contact (Peltier junction), electric current is circulated and this produces a heat transfer; that is one of the junctions heats up (acquires heat), while

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (waves) generated by the thermal motion of particles in the matter (that has a temperature greater than absolute zero). It represents the conversion of thermal energy into electromagnetic energy. Particle motion results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation. The characteristics of thermal radiation depend on various properties of

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Thermoelectric effect [thermoelectricity]

Thermoelectric effect (thermoelectricity) is defined as the set of those particular thermal phenomena of conversion of heat into electricity, and vice versa, that occur in particular conducting or semiconducting materials (called thermoelectric materials that have significant thermoelectric effects), correlating the heat flow that passes through them to the electric current that flows through them. The

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Vapor

Vapor (or vapour in British English and Canadian English) is a physical state of matter, defined as an aeriform state at a temperature below its critical temperature, which means that the vapor can be condensed into a liquid by increasing the pressure on it without reducing the temperature. A vapor is different from an aerosol. An aerosol is

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Heat flux

Heat flux (or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity) is a flow of thermal energy per unit of area per unit of time. \[\vec{\phi}_q\;\left[\dfrac{\textrm{W}}{\textrm{m}^2}\right]\] the subscript  specifying heat flux, as opposed to mass or momentum flux. Fourier’s law is an important application of these concepts. It has both a direction and a magnitude, and so it is a vector quantity. To define the heat

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity (C) also called thermal capacity, is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of an object through 1 °C, either at constant pressure or at constant volume and without inducing chemical changes or a change of phase. Numerically it is equal to the product of the mass (m) of the object and

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Heat

Heat is defined as the transfer of thermal energy across a well-defined boundary around a thermodynamic system; in the kinetic theory, heat is explained in terms of energy stored in the temperature-dependent microscopic motion and interaction of constituent particles, such as electrons, atoms, and molecules. The immediate meaning of the kinetic energy of the constituent

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Latent heat

Latent heat is the quantity of heat required to bring about a change of state of a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid (latent heat of fusion) or from liquid to gas (latent heat of vaporization or of condensation) or from solid to gas directly (latent heat of vaporization) without change of temperature

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Boiling

Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. At the boiling point, for a given pressure, the temperature remains constant throughout the

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Condensation

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from the gas phase into the liquid phase, transferring heat to the external environment (the inverse process of vaporization). It is a phase transition not characterized by a specific value of temperature for each substance, nor of pressure; can be performed: Condensation can generally occur in

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Convection

Convection is a type of transport (of matter and energy), absent in solids and negligible in very viscous fluids, caused by a pressure gradient and the force of gravity and characterized by circulation motions inside the fluid. The resulting convective motion is a state of motion characterized by a high degree of mixing, which depends

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Thermal energy

It is called thermal energy that type of energy that anybody has at a temperature above zero. This condition represents an extensive quantity and is directly proportional to the temperature that the body generates. Thermal energy is the kinetic energy of the microscopic motion of particles, a form of a disordered equivalent of mechanical energy;

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Critical temperature

The critical temperature finds definitions in different areas; in the case of fluid transition is defined as the critical temperature, the temperature above which a substance can not exist in a liquid state (not even being subjected to compression). In the case of the superconducting transition, it is defined as the critical temperature, the temperature below which the material

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Temperature gradient

The temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location. It is normally negative in the lower atmosphere; that is, the temperature decreases with height under normal atmospheric conditions. In physics, the temperature gradient is a physical quantity used

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Curie temperature (or Curie point)

The Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, which can (in most cases) be replaced by induced magnetism. In other words, the temperature at which a ferromagnetic becomes the paramagnet is called the Curie temperature. It is often mentioned in the context of remanence: above the substance-specific

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical property of a material that gives a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecular movement in an object or a system. Temperature can be defined as a condition of a body by virtue of which heat is transferred from one system to another. It is pertinent to mention here

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Entropy

In statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, entropy (from ancient Greek ἐν en, “within”, and τροπή tropè, “transformation”) is a quantity interpreted as a measure of the disorder present in a physical system. It is generally represented by the letter S and is measured in the International System of Units in Joules Fract Kelvin (J/K). Thermodynamics is

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Cooling

Cooling is the removal of heat, usually resulting in a lower temperature and/or phase change. Lowering the temperature by any other means can also be called cooling. The transfer of heat energy may be by radiation, conduction, or convection.

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Adiabatic

In physics is called adiabatic a process or physical transformation of macroscopic variables of a thermodynamic system (pressure, temperature, volume) from one physical state to another without the transfer of heat or mass of substances between a thermodynamic system and the environment surrounding the system. Of it are possible the adiabatic expansion in which the thermodynamic system

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Thermodynamic time

Although it is easy to imagine apparently reversible processes in time (the swing of a pendulum, the motion of the planets, the trajectory of a marble bouncing between the sides of a billiard table), microscopic analysis shows that even these processes are in fact irreversible thermodynamic processes that define a unique way in which time

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