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Psychology

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of both intrusive thoughts (called “obsessions”) and compulsive behaviors. Obsessions Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause anxiety, are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate, and are defined as “egodystonic,” i.e., distant from the self-concept. To give an example, an obsession might […]

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Consciousness

Consciousness describes our awareness of internal and external stimuli. Awareness of internal stimuli includes feeling pain, hunger, thirst, sleepiness, and being aware of our thoughts and emotions. Awareness of external stimuli includes seeing the light from the sun, feeling the warmth of a room, and hearing the voice of a friend. States of consciousness vary over the

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Sadness

Sadness is an emotion that is the opposite of joy and happiness. It can be experienced under normal conditions, during everyday life, or because of a particularly dramatic event, such as a loss, a bereavement or a disappearance. It is one of the “six basic emotions” described by Paul Ekman, along with happiness, anger, surprise, fear

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Acceptance

We define acceptance as “the assumption of awareness that a given purpose is definitely compromised. Acceptance is used to ensure that resources are not wasted on an unattainable purpose and directly serves the pseudo-purpose of “optimizing the use of resources and time in the pursuit of one’s goals. The three emotions that are often predominant

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Apathy

Apathy (from the greek a-pathos, literally “without emotion”) is a strong absence of motivation and consequent strong reduction of purposeful behavior. The absence of motivation to live generates a drastic reduction of emotionality and a strong emotional indifference to the outside world, then a constant feeling of boredom in living. Apathy is distinguished from depression in

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Social group

In sociology, a social group is a collection of individuals who interact with one another, in an orderly fashion, based on shared expectations regarding their respective behavior. It is a collection of people whose statuses and roles are interrelated. Human beings are inclined to cooperate, compete, analyze, produce ideas, plan, and decide in groups; groups

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Phobia

The term phobia (from the greek φόβος, phóbos, “panic, fear”) indicates an irrational and persistent fear and repulsion of certain situations, objects, activities, animals or people, which can, in severe cases limit the autonomy of the subject as in the case of avoidance, but that does not represent a real danger to the person. A phobia is

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Joy

Joy is the state of fulfillment and happiness that usually occurs when we achieve goals, see a desire fulfilled or a need satisfied. It is characterized by specific expressive patterns – such as smiling – and physiological patterns, such as accelerated heart rate and increased arousal. The aspect that makes joy so attractive and important is

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Surprise

Surprise is a neutral emotional reaction, or an elementary and primitive emotion, which originates immediately when faced with a new or unusual situation, and which is quickly diluted, giving rise to the emotions that conform to this stimulation. For psychology, it occupies a central position at the cognitive level. Taken as a basic emotion, hand in

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Neurolinguistics

Neurolinguistics is the study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication. Researchers are drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical perspectives. Much work in neurolinguistics is informed by models in psycholinguistics and theoretical linguistics, and is

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Guilt

The feeling of guilt is an unpleasant psychic state resulting from an action experienced as reprehensible (violation of an ethical, moral or religious norm). It is associated with a lowering of the level of self-esteem and the tendency to assume an expiatory or reparatory behavior. In depressive states, guilt can be a global feeling, not in relation

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Mood

The mood is an affective state, which differs from emotions and feelings for being less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked by a recent stimulus or event. Etymologically, the word mood derives from the Old English mōd which denoted military courage but could also refer to a person’s humor, temper, or disposition at a particular time.

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Hypochondria

The term hypochondriasis (or hypochondria also called pathophobia, or disease anxiety) is a clinical form of anxiety disorders characterized by unjustified and excessive concern for one’s own or others’ health, with the belief that any symptom experienced by a subject is a sign of a severe disease. The term hypochondria derives from the Greek ὑποχόνδρια, composed of the prefix

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Bioethics

Bioethics (from ancient Greek ἔθος (or ήθος), “èthos”, character or behavior, custom, habit, and βίος, “bìos”, life) is a discipline that deals with moral issues related to biological research and medicine. Bioethics is interdisciplinary in nature and involves philosophy, philosophy of science, medicine, clinical bioethics, biology, law, biolaw, sociology, psychology and biopolitics, in the different moral

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Mediation

Mediation is an activity, carried out by an impartial third party, known as a mediator, aimed at allowing two or more parties to reach an agreement (which can be of various kinds) or to overcome an existing conflict between them. In the legal context, it is one of the main ADRs, or alternative dispute resolution. Mediation is

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Emotion

Emotions (from Latin emotio, meaning “movement”, “impulse”) are a multi-componential process, articulated in several components: mental and physiological states associated with psychological changes, internal or external stimuli, natural or learned. They represent an inner process triggered by an event-stimulus relevant to the interests of the individual, have a time course and are activated by internal or

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Contempt

Contempt is the feeling of one who, rightly or wrongly, considers a person or thing too inferior to himself, or vile in itself, or otherwise unworthy of his own esteem and consideration; and the very acts by which this feeling is manifested. By this particular shade of meaning it differs from hatred, which indicates the feeling

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Personality

The term personality refers to the set of psychic characteristics and behavioral modes (inclinations, interests, passions) that define the core of individual differences, in the multiplicity of contexts in which human behavior develops. Each theoretical nucleus, in psychology, conceptualizes personality within different models, using methods, objectives and modes of analysis also very dissonant between them. Personality development

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Happiness

Happiness is the positive state of mind (emotion) of those who consider satisfied their desires. The etymology of the term happiness derives from: felicitas, derivative felix-icis, “happy”, whose root “fe-” means abundance, wealth, prosperity. The notion of happiness understood as a condition (more or less stable) of total satisfaction, occupies a prominent place in the moral

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Anger

With the terms anger, rage and wrath, we indicate an altered psychic state, aroused by elements perceived as threats or provocations capable of removing the inhibitory brakes that normally dampen the choices of the subject involved. The angry person feels a deep aversion to something or someone and, in some cases, even to himself. Anger involves

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Perception

Perception is the psychic process that operates the synthesis of sensory data into forms with meaning. Assumptions to the study of perception vary depending on theories and historical moments. The main disciplines that have dealt with perception are psychology, medicine and philosophy. While our sensory receptors are constantly collecting information from the environment, it is ultimately

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, threat, worry, and changes at the physiological level; while it shares similar aspects with fear from a physiological standpoint, it differs because while fear is an emotional reaction to a real and immediate danger, anxiety is an emotional reaction to a perceived future threat. The term anxiety

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Fear

Fear is an intense feeling of apprehension and anxiety that creeps into the individual for the action, even momentary or sudden, of concrete or imaginary elements from which dangers or damage may result: fear of the storm, fear of examinations, fear of death, fear does not pass him more, trembling, pale with fear, do, put fear,

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Leadership

The notion of leadership traditionally refers to the personal qualities that enable an individual person – a leader – to exercise authority or influence over groups or individuals, even apart from the role formally exercised. To this model refers a tradition of thought that identifies as a primary characteristic of the holder of leadership the so-called charismatic

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