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A country is considered in political geography and international politics as a political division within a certain geographical entity. When referring to the sovereign territory, the term is most commonly associated with the concepts of state, nation, or government. It is often referred to as the land of an individual’s birth, residence, or citizenship. Identifies a territory […]

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Autocracy is a form of government in which a single individual holds unlimited power. It is an enhanced form of absolute monarchy in which the ruler shares no power with either the ministers or the ruling classes. An emperor may inherit power, but is considered an autocrat instead of a monarch when too much power is

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Economics [closed economy] In economics, autarky is a kind of political policy that aims to nullify a country’s economic dependence on foreign countries by encouraging internal production of all goods needed by the national community. The pursuit of these objectives leads on the one hand to neglect the advantages of importing goods at a lower cost than

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices, relations, and processes by which corporations are directed and controlled. The concept of corporate governance is relatively new compared to the entire history of free trade and business formation. There was likely some “code of honor” followed by businesses in the past, but it wasn’t until the 21st century

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Negotiation is a communicative process between two or more actors aimed at formulating a joint decision. It is also one of the four basic types of ADR, or alternative dispute resolution (i.e., without going through the courts). An article in the Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes defined negotiation as the “process by which parties with nonidentical preferences allocate

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The term bureaucracy traditionally refers to the complex of offices and officials that make up the public administration: the hybrid etymology of the term, which combines the French “bureau” (office) to the Greek “krátos” (power), reveals its late origin and derivation of French-speaking matrix. The “power of offices” refers to the organization of people and resources for

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Bioethics (from ancient Greek ἔθος (or ήθος), “èthos”, character or behavior, custom, habit, and βίος, “bìos”, life) is a discipline that deals with moral issues related to biological research and medicine. Bioethics is interdisciplinary in nature and involves philosophy, philosophy of science, medicine, clinical bioethics, biology, law, biolaw, sociology, psychology and biopolitics, in the different moral

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A society (from the Latin societas, deriving from the noun socius, that is “companion, friend, ally”) is a group of individuals endowed with different levels of autonomy, relationship and organization that, variously aggregating, interact in order to pursue one or more common objectives. The concept of society requires a more rigorous analytical and theoretical reconstruction than is

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The election is a method of choice of the owner or owners of an office by members of a college, electoral body or other community, who are called to express their preferences through voting for one or more people or for a whole of people (a list), votes which are then transformed into a collective choice based

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Political economy

Political economy studies the activity carried out by men in order to use in the most efficient way the available resources in order to satisfy their needs. Since resources are limited and needs are unlimited, each individual or each group of individuals must make choices: political economy studies the forms that human behavior (individual or society)

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Domestic policy

Domestic policy is the branch of politics that deals with the internal administration of the state and includes such areas as public administration, health and transportation, education, control of the police and armed forces, etc. In a democracy, it follows the principle of separation of powers, which divides state responsibilities into the hands of three

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Foreign policy

Foreign policy is the branch of politics that deals with a state’s relations with other states and diplomatic activity. For many years, domestic and foreign policy were treated as two different and autonomous fields of action, and only in the 20th century it was understood that these two are deeply connected with each other, as

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Economic policy

Economic policy is the branch of politics that studies the effects of the intervention of public authorities and private entities on the economy, elaborating a series of specific operations in order to achieve a set of predetermined micro and macroeconomic objectives. Its main objective is to increase the overall level of welfare in a society*.

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Monarchy: ​it is the form of Government in which the sovereignty is in the hands of a monarch, which is the head of state, and remains so until their death or abdication. Usually, the substitute of the monarch, when they divest or cease their activity, is a member of the same ​dynasty:​ child, sibling, or another

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A republic is the form of Government in which every citizen in a State freely participates in the political life by directly or indirectly electing their own representatives in the parliament or the head of state and government, whose mandates are temporary. It may include a written constitution or an oral constitutional system. A Republic can be:

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Dictatorship is a form of government that centralizes power in one body, if not in the hands of a dictator. The rise to power of a dictatorship is often facilitated by situations of severe economic crisis (e.g., after a war), social difficulties (class struggles), instability of the existing regime, or the pre-existence of a dictatorial

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State (polity)

The State is the political and legal organization of a community permanently settled on a territory. As the authority governing a territory and a population, the state constitutes a territorially based legal order. Moreover, according to a widely held view, the order established and guaranteed by the state, or with which the state identifies itself,

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The term government (from the verb to govern, Latin gubernāre, “to hold the helm,” itself derived from ancient Greek: κυβερνάω, kybernáō) is used in legal and political language with various meanings. In a very broad sense, government is the set of individuals in a state, whether at the central or local level, who hold political

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Governance is how society or groups within it, organize to make decisions; it comprises all of the processes of governing. The concept of governance has been around in both political and academic discourse for a long time, referring in a generic sense to the task of running a government, or any other appropriate entity for

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The term politics (from the ancient Greek politiká “city affairs”, der. from polis, “city”) is used to refer to the activities and methods of government, or even, in the political lexicon, to so-called opposition activity. It can refer to states, confederations and intergovernmental organizations, or to more limited local and territorial entities, such as regions

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Social class

In social and political studies, a social class is defined as a homogeneous group of individuals who share similar economic and cultural conditions and occupy a specific position in society. This position is derived from their productive activity, wealth, income, authority, prestige, and power in the hierarchy. The nomenclature of social classes has changed many

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