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Physics (a term derived from the Latin physica, “nature,” which in turn derives from the ancient Greek τὰ φυσικά, tà physiká, “[the] natural things,” from φύσις [phýsis], both of common Indo-European origin) is the science of nature that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space-time, and the related entities of energy […]

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A trajectory or flight path is the path that a mass moving object follows through space as a function of time. In classical mechanics, it is generally a continuous, derivable curve in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It can be derived from the law of time by separating it into the parametric equations in time of the

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the branch of physics that studies the atomic nucleus, its constituents, protons and neutrons, and their interactions; its objective is the study of nuclear phenomena, of the elementary constituents of the universe and their interactions. The complexity of experiments on one side and the refinement of research methodologies on the other side

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Nuclear force

Strong nuclear interaction, has a property called color charge, holds quarks together, elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, and also the latter within the nucleus. It is absolutely the most intense force among those known so far, to the point that it is not possible at low energy to isolate and separate a single quark from

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Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the branch of modern physics that studies the properties of atoms as isolated systems, including electrons and atomic nuclei, mainly concerning the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This is a field of physics studied at the beginning of XX century with the provision

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Medical physics

Medical physics (also called health physics) is the scientific discipline whereby the concepts and methodologies of physics are applied to medicine. Two fields have assumed particular prominence: cancer radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging. Radiotherapy, traditionally based on the use of massive doses of radiation produced by cobalt 60 (cobalt therapy) and X-ray irradiation, has been progressively integrated

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Rotation is defined as rigid movement having as fixed points a point called center (in two dimensions) or a straight line called axis (in three dimensions) of rotation. This movement shifts all points around the center, or axis, by a fixed angle. In other words a rotation is the movement of a body following a circular

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Roto-translation (rigid transformation)

The rigid transformation (or roto-translation motion) is the composition between reflection, translation, and rotation, and therefore it is an isometry, that is, a geometric transformation that leaves the distances unchanged. In other words, we can think of roto-translation as a rigid movement in which a geometric figure first rotates and then translates. The rototranslation motion of a rigid body

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Modern physics

Modern physics is defined as the set of theoretical and experimental scientific developments since the twentieth century, have marked a conceptual leap from classical physics, developed since the seventeenth century, to explain phenomena that were not describable with a “classical” approach (quantum mechanics, theory of relativity). It is not possible to indicate with precision a

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Demagnetization [degaussing]

The demagnetization is the process by which the magnetic charge is eliminated from an object, both of a ferrous metal nature and of another nature. Degaussing is the process of decreasing or eliminating a remnant magnetic field. It is named after the gauss, a unit of magnetism, which in turn was named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. Due to magnetic hysteresis, it is generally not

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Experimental physics

Experimental physics includes disciplines and sub-disciplines that directly use the meanings of observations of physical phenomena in order to obtain data and information about the Universe, formulate or validate physical theories and physical laws. The goal of all these disciplines is to group and explain/interpret all the data obtained with methods that vary greatly: from

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The term “resistance” can take on different meanings depending on the context: Grammar Noun, countable and uncountable.Plural: resistances. Etymology From earlier resistence.From Middle English resistence.From Old French resistence.From Latin resistentia.Morphologically: resist +‎ –ance. Pronunciation IPA: /ɹɪˈzɪstəns/ Synonyms – friction, obstacle;stubbornness, inflexibility, opposition, obstinacy, refractoriness, reluctance, tenacity;– (of what) firmness, consistency, durability, hardness, sturdiness, steadfastness, solidity;– (of character) constancy, firmness, perseverance, forbearance, tolerance;– (sports)

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Induction is a physical phenomenon that is produced in bodies, or in space, due to the presence of other bodies. Therefore in physics induction is defined as any phenomenon where a body close to another body modifies some characteristics or determines some properties. The asymmetric distribution of electric charges in a conductor placed in an electric

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Mathematical physics

Mathematical physics deals with the “applications of mathematics to problems of physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for the formulation of physical theories and their applications,” using a mathematical formalism and the tools provided by mathematics itself. So, in other words, natural phenomena are observed, measured, and then analyzed using various mathematical tools.

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Ions are atoms or groups of atoms or molecules, non-neutral, that is, having electrical charges (one or more than one) positive and/or negative, due (respectively) to the loss or acquisition of an electron. The total charge of an ion is equal to the difference between the number of protons, minus the number of electrons. An ion

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Complex systems physics

Complex systems physics is a relatively recent branch of modern physics that studies the physical behavior of complex systems such as the economic system (ecophysics) or the climate system assumed as nonlinear and multi-component dynamical systems. In modern physics a complex system is a multicomponent dynamical system, that is composed of several subsystems that typically

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Hertz [Hz]

The hertz (symbol Hz, named in honor of the 19th-century German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. \[1\;\textrm{Hz}=\dfrac{1}{s}\] Given any phenomenon consisting of an event that repeats itself periodically, the frequency of this phenomenon is defined as the number of repetitions of the event

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Freezing (or solidification) is a phase transition where a liquid (a disordered structure) turns into a solid (a more ordered structure) when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. The IUPAC officially adopts the term “solidification” also to refer to the transition of state between the gas phase and the solid phase (which is commonly

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Metamagnetism is a physical phenomenon that determines a sudden (often, dramatic) increase in the magnetization of a material; the transition for which some antiferromagnetic substances (FeCl2, MnAu2 etc.) become ferromagnetic. The metamagnetism occurs in the presence of a strong magnetic field and at a certain temperature. The metamagnetic behavior may have quite different physical causes for different

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Point particle

In physics a point particle is defined as a body whose dimensions are negligible compared to the phenomenon under study. For example a planet can be considered a point particle in a celestial mechanics problem, an atom in a statistical mechanics problem and so on. In general a point particle is only characterized by its three spatial

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Magnetic field

In physics, particularly in magnetism, the magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field generated in space by the motion of an electric charge or a time-varying electric field. Together with the electric field, the magnetic field constitutes the electromagnetic field, responsible for electromagnetic interaction in space. Actually, the equations related to the electric field and those related

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The average speed of an object is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time elapsed. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time. Velocity is a vector quantity, and average velocity can be defined as the

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Buoyancy or upthrust is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object; it is what makes an object float, sink, or remain neutrally buoyant in the water (or other fluids). The symbol for the magnitude of buoyancy is \(B\) or \(F_B\). As a vector, it must be stated with both magnitude

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Vectors are indicated in the scientific literature with a letter, generally lowercase, with an arrow above it: (vec{v}). Vectors are essential to physics and engineering. Many fundamental physical quantities are vectors, including displacement, velocity, force, and electric and magnetic vector fields. In this context, the following fundamental entities are assigned: Let us now explain specifically what

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Applied physics

The research area of applied physics brings together many expertise, groups, and application areas. Experimental activity focuses primarily on research and development of advanced methods and technologies, targeting both new experimental approaches to fundamental investigation and applications. The activity of the area can be divided into four main parts: It usually differs from engineering in

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