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Philosophy

Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originated during the “Spring and Autumn Period” and the “Warring States Period”, a period known as the Hundred Schools of Thought, which saw significant cultural and intellectual developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, its elements have existed for thousands of years: some can be found in the […]

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Analytic philosophy

The term analytic philosophy refers to a stream of thought that has developed since the early 20th century, mainly as a result of the work of Bertrand Russell, George Edward Moore, the various members of the Vienna Circle, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. By extension, we refer to the entire subsequent philosophical tradition influenced by these authors,

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Quantitative reasoning

Quantitative reasoning (QR) is defined as the habit of mind to apply data and quantitative tools to a wide range of problems in personal, professional, and public contexts. The ability to think quantitatively clearly plays a central role in undergraduate education. By one definition, quantitative reasoning (QR) is the application of basic mathematics skills, such

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Antithesis

An antithesis (from the Greek ἀντίϑεσις) is a rhetorical figure consisting of a juxtaposition of opposing words or concepts, which acquire greater prominence from their proximity and mostly symmetrical arrangement. It can be obtained either by affirming one thing and denying together its opposite. In logic, on the other hand, an antithesis is a thesis that contradicts

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Autarky

Economics [closed economy] In economics, autarky is a kind of political policy that aims to nullify a country’s economic dependence on foreign countries by encouraging internal production of all goods needed by the national community. The pursuit of these objectives leads on the one hand to neglect the advantages of importing goods at a lower cost than

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Enlightenment

Locke’s lesson was a lesson in critical caution, and in this sense, his philosophy was interpreted by the Enlightenment. «After so much unfortunate wandering – wrote Voltaire – tired, exhausted and shameful of having sought so many truths and found so many chimeras, I returned, like the prodigal son to his father, to Locke; and

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Hypothesis

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses; from the ancient Greek ὑπόθεσις hypothesis, composed of hypo, “under” and thesis, “position”, or supposition) is the premise underlying reasoning or a demonstration; in other words is a suggested explanation for an event, which one can test. Originally, the meaning of the word indicated a mathematical method capable of simplifying the calculations, or a plausible

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Abstraction

The term abstraction derives from the Latin abstractio which in turn takes up the Greek one of “αφαίρεσις” (aphàiresis). Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon (removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics), selecting only the aspects which are

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Idea

Idea (from Greek ἰδέα idea “form, pattern,” from the root of ἰδεῖν idein, “to see”) is a term used since the dawn of philosophy, originally indicating a primordial and substantial essence, but today has taken on a narrower meaning in the common language, generally referring to a representation or a “drawing” of the mind; original evidence

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Bioethics

Bioethics (from ancient Greek ἔθος (or ήθος), “èthos”, character or behavior, custom, habit, and βίος, “bìos”, life) is a discipline that deals with moral issues related to biological research and medicine. Bioethics is interdisciplinary in nature and involves philosophy, philosophy of science, medicine, clinical bioethics, biology, law, biolaw, sociology, psychology and biopolitics, in the different moral

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Ethics

Ethics, also called moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that “denotes that part of philosophy which deals with custom, that is, human behavior.” The term is derived from the ancient Greek ἦθος (êthos), meaning “character”, “behavior”, or, less likely, from ἔθος (èthos) meaning “custom”, “habit”, “custom”. It is descriptive, if it focuses on describing

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Rationalism

Rationalism (from the Latin word ratio, “reason”) is a philosophical movement based on the assumption that human reason can in principle be the source of all knowledge. In other words: philosophical movement whose foundation is the persuasion that reality and being are structured in the same way as our thought and that therefore the relationships that

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Deduction

Deduction is defined as reasoning by which logically necessary conclusions are derived from certain premises; truth or judgment arrived at by this process | in com. usage, the act of inferring, of arguing; what is inferred, inferred: arbitrary deductions. Since the deductive method always starts from a postulate or an axiom, that is, from an absolute

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Soul

The soul (from Latin anima, connected with Greek ànemos, “breath”, “wind”), in many religions, spiritual traditions and philosophies, is the vital and spiritual part of a living being, commonly considered distinct from the physical body. Typically it was assimilated to the breath (hence its etymology). Originally an expression of the essence of a personality, understood as a

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Naturalism

Naturalism is a term common to currents of thought that consider nature, in all its aspects, not only as a fundamental object of philosophical reflection, but also, and above all, as a decisive and absolute point of reference with regard to the life and interests of humanity. Therefore the term naturalism can refer for example to:

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Perception

Perception is the psychic process that operates the synthesis of sensory data into forms with meaning. Assumptions to the study of perception vary depending on theories and historical moments. The main disciplines that have dealt with perception are psychology, medicine and philosophy. While our sensory receptors are constantly collecting information from the environment, it is ultimately

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Humanism

Humanism was a cultural movement, inspired by Francesco Petrarca and in part by Giovanni Boccaccio, aimed at the rediscovery of the Latin and Greek classics in their historicity and no longer in their allegorical interpretation, thus also inserting customs and beliefs of antiquity in their everyday life through which to start a “rebirth” of European culture

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Arabic philosophy

One can speak of Arabic philosophy with regard to historical phenomena that occurred in different cultural and religious spheres, which also differed according to the historical period and the geographical area in which they were located, but which are basically united by the use of the same language: Arabic. The term includes both the so-called Islamic or

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Jewish philosophy

We define as Jewish philosophy the philosophical ideas of those authors who lived in various geographical regions (in the Near and Middle East, in Europe and northern Africa) after the 1st century AD, who used different languages as a means of expression but who were united by two common characteristics: their Jewish ethnicity and their more or

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Christian philosophy

Christian philosophy is also interwoven with religious and theological themes: it can’t indeed separate itself from the so-called “revealed truths,” and therefore from the faith, and it has its true subject in God, within whom exclusively the world and the self can be understood, as the creature is understood in the creator, the finite in the

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Tibetan philosophy

Tibetan philosophy developed from the texts and assumptions of Indian Buddhism and almost exclusively in the Buddhist sphere, offering interesting solutions and developments to the Madhyamaka, Pramāṇavāda and, to a lesser extent, Yogācāra currents. Some key concepts used by contemporary interpreters of Indian and Buddhist philosophy, such as the distinction between a *svātantrika and a *prāsaṅgika

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Epistemology

Epistemology (from the ancient Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistème, “certain knowledge i.e. science” and λόγος, logos, “discourse”) is that branch of philosophy that deals with the conditions under which scientific knowledge can be had and the methods of attaining such knowledge. Epistemology can be considered a part of the philosophy of science, the discipline that in addition to

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Love

The word love can mean a wide variety of different feelings and attitudes, ranging from a more general form of affection to a strong feeling that expresses itself in interpersonal attraction and attachment, a passionate dedication between people or, in its extended meaning, a deep inclination towards something. It can also be a human virtue representing kindness

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Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical and cultural movement, born in France in the first half of the nineteenth century by A. Comte. and inspired by some fundamental guiding ideas generally referred to the exaltation of scientific progress. This current of thought, driven by the industrial revolutions and literature related to it, spread in the second half of

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