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Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that uses the transmission of high-frequency sound waves into the body to generate an echo signal that is converted by a computer into a real-time image of anatomy and physiology. Ultrasonography is the least invasive of all imaging techniques, and it is therefore used more freely in sensitive situations such as […]

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Medical physics

Medical physics (also called health physics) is the scientific discipline whereby the concepts and methodologies of physics are applied to medicine. Two fields have assumed particular prominence: cancer radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging. Radiotherapy, traditionally based on the use of massive doses of radiation produced by cobalt 60 (cobalt therapy) and X-ray irradiation, has been progressively integrated

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Epidemiology is the biomedical discipline that studies the distribution and frequency of diseases and events of health significance in the population. Using statistics, it collaborates with other disciplines such as preventive and clinical medicine, demography and sociology. It is concerned with analyzing the causes, course, and consequences of diseases. According to Last et al. (1998) epidemiology

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Methotrexate is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant of a type known as an antimetabolite that interferes with the synthesis of folic acid, an essential component of cells. Methotrexate is a drug that counteracts folic acid synthesis and belongs to the class of drugs called antimetabolites. At high doses it counteracts cell growth and proliferation and is used

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The perceptron is a device born from a first draft of artificial neuron theorized by Warren Mc Culloch and Walter Pitts and later taken up by Frank Rosenblatt, in 1958, who developed an electromechanical machine consisting of potentiometers, motors, and photocells that would have the purpose of recognizing simple geometric shapes. It consists of a “retina” made

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Viral load

Viral load is the quantity of viral particles present in the body of a person (or an organism), potentially transported and released into the environment; for example with coughing and sneezing. The higher the quantity, the greater the potential contagiousness of a person. The index that measures the viral load is the Cycle Threshold CT. What

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is one that is not due to any known external cause, with no apparent cause, so to speak primitive. It roughly means “a disease of its own kind”. Idiopathic (literally: having no known cause) is an adjective used primarily in medicine to indicate a disease not due to a known external cause, i.e., without apparent

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Anhidrosis (from Greek ἀνἱδρώς (anídrōsis), derived from ἀν-(án → inversion prefix) and ἱδρώς (hidrṓs → sweat); also called hypohidrosis, adiaphoresis, and oligohidrosis) in the medical field means the lack, or significant reduction, of skin perspiration, sweating, or perspiration. The term adiaphoresis is derived from: ἀν- (án → inversion prefix) and διαϕόρησις (diaphórēsis → perspiration), a derivative

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Neurology is the specialized branch of medicine that studies the pathologies of the central nervous system (brain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord), of the peripheral somatic system (spinal roots and ganglia, nerve plexuses and trunks) and of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, extravisceral and intravisceral plexuses). Neurological knowledge relies heavily on discoveries

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Etiology is the part of science concerned with researching the causes that cause certain phenomena. In the medical field, in particular, the etiology investigates the factors that may intervene in the origin of diseases, studying the importance and possible relationships of interdependence. In many cases, in fact, diseases do not have a single cause, but a

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In neurology, abulia, or aboulia refers to a lack of will or initiative and can be seen as a disorder of diminished motivation (DDM). From the greek ἀβουλία (aboulìa, absence of will), composed of the privative prefix ἀ- and βουλή (boulè, will), indicates a more or less pathological condition characterized by a chronically weak or insufficient will, of apathetic indolence: abulia

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An antalgic drug or analgesic drug (or simply painkiller) is medically used to relieve pain by reducing it, but without intervening on the causes that have caused it. The action of analgesic drugs takes place at the level of central nervous structures and differs from the pain-relieving effect of local anesthetics, which has an essentially peripheral character. Since the

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The term ablation can be used to refer to the process by which the surface layers of an object are eroded or vaporized. Examples include friction (e.g., a spacecraft entering the Earth’s atmosphere) and radiation (e.g., tumors removed by laser). The term is often found in space physics associated with atmospheric re-entry, glaciology, medicine, and passive fire

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Anaphylaxis is defined as “a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and can cause death.” In the most severe forms, it is referred to as “anaphylactic shock.” It is caused by a particular form of hypersensitivity, commonly called “allergy,” to an antigenic substance (called an allergen). Common causes include insect stings, foods and medications.

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Abiotrophy is a process of degeneration, with progressive loss of viability, affecting cells of the central nervous system. Abiotrophy is a degenerative pathological process that occurs in histological elements. Particularly studied is the abiotrophy affecting nerve cells, known, depending on the district involved, as cerebral abiotrophy and cerebellar abiotrophy. Abiotrophy arises without any apparent recognized cause

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Cholera is a toxinfection of the small intestine by certain strains of the gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium Vibrio cholerae or vibrio vibrio. The condition can present without any symptoms, in mild or severe form. The classic symptom is profuse diarrhea, often complicated with acidosis, hypokalemia, muscle cramps, and vomiting, lasting a couple of days. The diarrhea can

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A disease is an abnormal condition of a living organism, caused by organic or functional alterations, which compromise its health. In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, sickness and illness are used interchangeably. The concept of disease implies the consideration of the concepts of “normality” and health; the latter, as far as human beings are

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Medicine is the science that studies the diseases of the human body in order to guarantee people’s health, in particular establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, as well as different ways of alleviating the suffering of the sick (even those who cannot more heal). The care of the body, understood in both medical

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Paracetamol (or acetaminophen, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, C8H9NO2) is a medication with analgesic and antipyretic action widely used both alone and in association with other substances, for example in common over-the-counter preparations for viral forms of cold, or in drugs for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It acts on the nervous system by altering the perception of

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Blood is the only fluid tissue with a complex composition (plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets and other substances in solution) and non-Newtonian behavior. This tissue is enclosed in a system of channels communicating with each other (arterial vessels and venous vessels), in which it can circulate because it is pushed mainly by

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Perception is the psychic process that operates the synthesis of sensory data into forms with meaning. Assumptions to the study of perception vary depending on theories and historical moments. The main disciplines that have dealt with perception are psychology, medicine and philosophy. While our sensory receptors are constantly collecting information from the environment, it is ultimately

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Histology (from Greek ἱστός (histós), cloth and λόγος (lógos), study) is the branch of biology that studies plant and animal tissues. Histology is applied in medicine, where it plays an important role in pathological anatomy and description of morbid phenomena, also essential for pre- and post-operative analysis in medical and surgical settings. Histology studies the morphology

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Electromyography (EMG), electroneurography (ENG) and single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) are neurophysiological methods that are used to study the peripheral nervous system (PNS) from a functional point of view. It represents a reliable method that can give information about the functionality of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles. It is also a diagnostic tool that allows to frame

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