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Materials Science

Poly[methyl methacrylate]

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a plastic material formed from polymers of methyl methacrylate, the methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It is a thermoplastic polymer. It is also known by the trade names of Plexiglas, Perspex, Amanite, Lucite, Trespex, Vitroflex, Acrivill, Perclax, Limacryl, Crylux, Oroglas, Setacryl, Altuglas. It is a thermoplastic substance obtained by polymerization of methyl […]

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Anisotropy

Anisotropy, as opposed to isotropy, is also used to describe situations where properties vary systematically, depending on direction. As already seen for the anisotropy we can have various definitions depending on the field of interest. Anisotropy, in materials science, represents the directional dependence of a material on a physical property. This is a fundamental characteristic

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Aluminum

Aluminum is a chemical element belonging to the 3rd period of the periodic table of elements and to group IIIA (of earth metals) with atomic number 13; it has an electronic configuration Ne 3s23p. Its symbol is Al and it is identified by the CAS number 7429-90-5. The name aluminum comes from the ancient name used

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Plastic

Plastic is an organic material consisting of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds, mainly from pure polymers or blended (high molecular weight) with additives. Its malleability allows solid objects of any shape to be made with different molding methods. Plastics are high molecular weight organic materials, that is, made up of molecules with

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Acrylic polymers

Acrlic polymers are synthetic resins made from the polymerization of the esters of acrylic acid CH2=CHCOOH (2-propenoic acid), methacrylic acid CH2=C(CH3)COOH (2-methylpropenoic acid) or their esters. The most common acrylic polymers are polymethylacrylate and polyethylacrylate and are used to make paints, surface coatings, adhesives and in textiles. Acrylic acid or 2-propenoic acid is obtained from the

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Thermoplastic

Thermoplastics (or thermoplastic polymers or thermoplastic resins) are those plastic materials that acquire malleability, that is, they soften under the action of heat. At this stage they can be molded or formed into finished objects and then by cooling they become rigid again. This process, theoretically, can be repeated several times according to the qualities of

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Amine polymer

Amine polymers are polymers that contain amino groups inserted in the main chain or substituting one or more hydrogen atoms of the same chain. Among the amino polymers of the first type we can mention polyethylenediamine and polymethylenamine, while among the polymers of the second type, that is among the polymers with amino groups as

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Thermosetting polymer

Thermosetting polymers (or thermosetting resins) belong to the group of plastic materials; they are particular polymers that, after an initial softening phase due to heating, harden due to the effect of three-dimensional cross-linking; during the softening phase due to the combined effect of heat and pressure they are deformable and once hardened they are very resistant.

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Fluoropolymer

Fluoropolymers are polymeric materials containing fluorine atoms bonded to carbon atoms in their structure. They have high resistance to chemical agents such as organic solvents, acids and inorganic bases. The different starting monomers contribute to the diversification of fluoropolymers and their respective properties. When all hydrogen atoms are substituted with fluorine we have perfluorinated polymers. Although

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Polymer

Polymers (from the Greek poly and meros, “many parts”) are made up of macromolecules that form natural or synthetic substances generally of organic type. The macromolecules that make up polymers are of high size and weight, similar to each other (but not necessarily identical), in turn formed by a repetition of structural units (molecular groups also

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Graphene

Graphene is a material consisting of a monoatomic layer of carbon atoms (i.e., having a thickness equivalent to the size of a single atom). It has the theoretical strength of diamond and the flexibility of plastic. As suggested by the ending –ene of the name, the atoms are hybridized in the form sp2, and are then arranged

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Thermoplastic elastomer

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), sometimes referred to as thermoplastic rubbers, are a class of copolymers or a physical mix of polymers (usually a plastic and a rubber) which, above its melt temperature, exhibits a thermoplastic character that enables it to be shaped into a fabricated article and which, within it’s designed temperature range, possesses elastomeric behaviour without

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Plasticity

Plasticity is the capacity to resist plastic deformation (dislocation movement of a solid material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces), while toughness measures the ability of a material to resist crack propagation. The rocks, subjected to external forces, are deformed continuously and permanently, without however being subjected to rupture phenomena and without

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Gilsonite

The Gilsonite (also known as “uintahite,” “asphaltum” or asphaltite), named by Samuel Gilson, is a natural resinous hydrocarbon derived from petroleum historically discovered in the 1860s in Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah and also present in Colorado, Iran, and Colombia. Gilsonite is soluble in aromatic and aliphatic solvents, as well as in petroleum asphalt. Thanks

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Elastomer

Elastomer is defined as a macromolecular material (natural or synthetic polymer) that when subjected to high deformation (stretching with elongation even up to 5 or 10 times the initial length) within a certain temperature range, after the removal of the applied stress returns to the initial shape and size; this is possible thanks to their particular

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Perovskite

Perovskite (discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia by Gustav Rose in 1839 and is named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski 1792–1856) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (CaTiO3). Its name is also applied to the class of compounds which have the same type of crystal structure as CaTiO3 \((^{\textrm{XII}}\textrm{A}^{2+\textrm{VI}}\textrm{B}^{4+}\textrm{X}^{2-}_3)\), known

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Absorber

An absorber is any material that is efficient at stopping (absorbing) ionizing radiation from passing through it. Absorbers can be made of a variety of materials depending on the purpose; lead, tungsten, and liquid hydrogen are common choices. Most absorbers are used as part of a particle detector; particle accelerators use absorbers to reduce radiation

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