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Engineering

Ultrasonography

Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that uses the transmission of high-frequency sound waves into the body to generate an echo signal that is converted by a computer into a real-time image of anatomy and physiology. Ultrasonography is the least invasive of all imaging techniques, and it is therefore used more freely in sensitive situations such as […]

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Soundproofing

For sound insulation or soundproofing (or acoustic shielding) means all those actions aimed at limiting the unwanted sound and noise transmission, usually by introducing sound-absorbing materials in the path of the sound waves. The application fields where insulation or soundproofing measures are necessary are many, including recording studios, rehearsal rooms, cinemas, and environments dedicated to audio-video, residential, offices, and public places, industry,

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Hydrophone

A hydrophone (Ancient Greek: ὕδωρ + φωνή, lit. ’water + sound’) is a microphone designed to be used underwater for recording or listening to underwater sound. Most hydrophones consist of a piezoelectric transducer that translates mechanical energy resulting from a change in pressure into electrical energy. Some piezoelectric materials, or transducers, can convert a sound into an electrical

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Airlock

An airlock, air-lock or air lock, is a compartment with doors which can be sealed against pressure which permits the passage of people and objects between environments of differing pressure or atmospheric composition while minimizing the change of pressure in the adjoining spaces and mixing of environments. Airlocks find application in many fields, especially in:

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Resistance

The term “resistance” can take on different meanings depending on the context: Grammar Noun, countable and uncountable.Plural: resistances. Etymology From earlier resistence.From Middle English resistence.From Old French resistence.From Latin resistentia.Morphologically: resist +‎ –ance. Pronunciation IPA: /ɹɪˈzɪstəns/ Synonyms – friction, obstacle;stubbornness, inflexibility, opposition, obstinacy, refractoriness, reluctance, tenacity;– (of what) firmness, consistency, durability, hardness, sturdiness, steadfastness, solidity;– (of character) constancy, firmness, perseverance, forbearance, tolerance;– (sports)

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Perceptron

The perceptron is a device born from a first draft of artificial neuron theorized by Warren Mc Culloch and Walter Pitts and later taken up by Frank Rosenblatt, in 1958, who developed an electromechanical machine consisting of potentiometers, motors, and photocells that would have the purpose of recognizing simple geometric shapes. It consists of a “retina” made

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Galvanization

Galvanization is an industrial chemical process of protection against corrosion (galvanic corrosion), in which a coating of zinc is applied to a metal item, hindering the formation of lettrolytic micro-cells with anodic action in the grain edges. Galvanization guarantees a long duration against atmospheric agents, without the need of periodical maintenance. The galvanized product at the

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Laser

A laser optoelectronic device capable of emitting a coherent beam of light (a unidirectional, monochromatic radiation with a wavelength between infrared and ultraviolet) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser“ originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation“. The first laser was built

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Luminous flux

In photometry, luminous flux (or luminous power) is a photometric quantity that measures the perceived power of light. The sensitivity of the human eye varies according to the wavelength of the light emitted. The luminous flux differs from the radiant flux, which is instead the measure of the total power of electromagnetic radiation emitted. The luminous flux

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Tribotronics

Tribotronics is a field of application of tribology that deals with integrating active control loops into machinery where tribological phenomena occur to improve the efficiency of the machinery itself. Tribotronics addresses questions like: “How should we design self-sensing bearings, that can detect their own wear and upcoming failure?”, or “How can we design seals that can

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Electromagnetic compatibility [EMC]

Electromagnetic compatibility (sometimes referred to by the acronym EMC), is a sub-discipline of electrical and electronic engineering, which deals with the analysis and optimization of unwanted effects produced by the unintentional generation, transmission and reception of electromagnetic energy, with the aim of ensuring the proper functioning in the same environment of various other electrical / electronic equipment

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Dehumidification

Dehumidification is the process of removing humidity from a system. The dehumidification of aeriformes can be done purely physically or physicochemically. The dehumidification by physical means is obtained by subjecting the aeriform to cooling until it reaches saturation, after which further cooling causes the condensation of water and other vapors that may be present. A subsequent

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Corrosion

Corrosion indicates a natural and irreversible process of slow and continuous consumption of a material, which has as its consequences the deterioration of the characteristics or physical properties of the material initially involved. Corrosion is a phenomenon of electrochemical nature that determines a chemical-physical interaction of the metallic material with the environment that surrounds it. Many

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Radio wave

Radio waves, in physics, are electromagnetic radiations, belonging to the electromagnetic spectrum, in the frequency band between 3 kHz and 300 GHz, i.e. with a wavelength greater than 1 mm. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (shorter than a grain of rice); at 30 Hz the corresponding wavelength is 10,000 km (longer

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electromechanical energy conversion machine (i.e., capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy), consisting of a fixed part (stator) and a moving part (rotor or slider, depending on whether the machine is rotating or linear) separated by a small air gap of uniform thickness, called the air gap. Classification of electric motors

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Tribology

Tribology (from Greek Τρίβος “tribos”, friction, and λόγος “logos”, study or science) is the science that studies the behavior and interactions between surfaces that interact with each other with a relative motion. In it converge study topics included in different disciplines, such as friction phenomena, theory and technique of lubrication, study and use of lubricants, microscopic

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Wear

Wear is defined as the removal of material from the surface of bodies in contact subject to relative motion. Wear affects the surfaces of contact members of machines causing a progressive decay of the functional characteristics. This phenomenon, however, has not only negative sides, on the contrary, it is often used to reduce the roughness of

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Neuromorphic engineering

Neuromorphic engineering, also known as neuromorphic computing, is a concept developed by Carver Mead, in the late 1980s, who spent over 40 years developing analysis systems designed to mimic the human senses and processing mechanisms of our bodies, such as touch, sight, hearing, and thought. Neuromorphic computing is a branch of neuromorphic engineering that focuses primarily

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Peltier cell

The Peltier cell (also called Peltier device, Peltier heat pump, solid state refrigerator, or thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and occasionally a thermoelectric battery) is a thermoelectric device consisting of many Peltier effect junctions in series, used both as a cooling and heating device; they are reversible through the Seebeck effect and can also be adopted as generators (for example in solar panels). Peltier cells

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