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Electromagnetism

Electromagnetic interaction

The electromagnetic interaction is responsible for the chemical properties of atoms and the structure of molecules. The electric charge determines the intensity and the direction of the interaction between charged bodies, bodies with equal electric charges repel each other, while bodies with opposite electric charges attract each other. The electromagnetic force is the result of local interaction […]

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Chemiluminescence

Chemiluminescence, is the emission of electromagnetic radiation, particularly in the visible and near infrared, that can accompany a chemical reaction. Particular type of luminescence that accompanies some chemical reactions, such as the slow oxidation of phosphorus and many organic substances in decomposition. When the phenomenon occurs in living organisms, it is more properly called bioluminescence.

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Coulomb’s law

Coulomb’s law, or Coulomb’s inverse-square law, is an experimental law of physics that quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically charged particles; or the force exerted by an electric field on an electric charge. In physics, the Coulomb force, described by Coulomb’s law, is the force exerted by an electric field on an electric

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Lenz’s law

In physics, Lenz’s law, formulated by Russian physicist Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz in 1834, is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy that determines the direction of the electromotive force resulting from electromagnetic induction in an electrical circuit. The law states that the time variation of the magnetic field flux through the area embraced

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Electric field

The electric field is defined as the electric force per unit charge; it surrounds an electric charge, and exerts a force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them. The direction of the field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test charge. The electric field is

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Ferrimagnetism

Ferrimagnetism is a type of permanent magnetism that occurs in some crystals when the magnetic moments of nearby ions tend to align antiparallel: it is, therefore, a type of antiferromagnetism; this situation occurs mainly in compounds known as ferrites. The term ferrimagnetism was originally proposed by Néel to describe the magnetic ordering phenomena in ferrites, in which iron

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Electromagnetic compatibility [EMC]

Electromagnetic compatibility (sometimes referred to by the acronym EMC), is a sub-discipline of electrical and electronic engineering, which deals with the analysis and optimization of unwanted effects produced by the unintentional generation, transmission and reception of electromagnetic energy, with the aim of ensuring the proper functioning in the same environment of various other electrical / electronic equipment

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Triboelectric effect

The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material, and are then separated. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties. It is

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Thomson effect

Thomson effect, discovered by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1854, is a thermoelectric effect that is manifested with the onset of a gradient of electric potential (and therefore an electromotive force, called in this case Thomson electromotive force) in a conducting material, when it is subjected to a temperature gradient. In qualitative terms, the explanation

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Voltage

The potential energy, stored in the form of an electric charge imbalance and capable of provoking electrons to flow through a conductor, can be expressed as a term called voltage (or electric potential difference, electric pressure, and electric tension), which technically is a measure of potential energy per unit charge of electrons or something a physicist would call

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum (abbreviated EM spectrum) is the set of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Radiations are electromagnetic waves characterized by a wavelength and a frequency. The energy carried by electromagnetic radiation depends on the wavelength. Since the wavelength, expressed in meters (m), and frequency, expressed in Hertz (Hz), are inversely proportional, the shorter the wavelength,

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Magnetization

Magnetization (symbol M, or Hi) is a process by which magnetic properties are conferred on a body. It is obtained by orienting the magnetic dipoles of the atomic structure thanks to an external magnetic field; its quantification is established by the intensity of magnetization, a vector quantity that represents the magnetic moment of the volume unit

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Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the property of some materials, called ferromagnetic materials, to magnetize very intensely under the action of an external magnetic field and to remain magnetized for a long time when the field is canceled, thus becoming magnets. This property is maintained only below a certain temperature, called Curie temperature, above which the material behaves like

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Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials are characterized at the atomic level by magnetic dipoles that align with the applied magnetic field, being weakly attracted to it. In

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Superparamagnetism

Superparamagnetism is a form of magnetism typical of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles. In sufficiently small particles (comparable in size to a magnetic domain of the corresponding massive material), the magnetic moments of individual atoms are aligned. In this situation, the magnetization can randomly change direction due to the effect of temperature. This phenomenon occurs in materials

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Electrodynamics

Electrodynamics is a branch of electromagnetism that studies the reciprocal actions between circuits traversed by current or electric charges in motion and the magnetic fields generated (time-varying electromagnetic fields) by such sources. Generally with this term we commonly refer to classical electrodynamics; the quantum or photonic-corpuscular approach to electromagnetic phenomena goes instead under the name

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Electromagnetism [electromagnetics]

Electromagnetism is the branch of classical physics that studies electromagnetic interaction and constitutes a fundamental theory that allowed to explain natural phenomena such as electricity, magnetism, and light; it is the first example of unification of two different forces, the electric and the magnetic one. In applied engineering, electromagnetics is the study of those aspects of electrical engineering in situations in which the electromagnetic

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Electromagnetic field

In physics, the electromagnetic field (also EM field) is the field that describes electromagnetic interaction. An electromagnetic field is a classical field produced by moving electric charges. Consisting of the combination of the electric field and the magnetic field, it is generated locally by any distribution of electric charge that varies over time and propagates in space in the

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Static electricity

Static electricity is the superficial and localized accumulation of electric charges on a body. It can occur both in a conductive material and in an insulator. It was discovered centuries ago that certain types of materials would mysteriously attract one another being rubbed together. There is also electrization by contact and electrization by induction. Static electricity

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (waves) generated by the thermal motion of particles in the matter (that has a temperature greater than absolute zero). It represents the conversion of thermal energy into electromagnetic energy. Particle motion results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation. The characteristics of thermal radiation depend on various properties of

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Electricity

Electricity generically indicates all physical phenomena on macroscopic scale that involve one of the fundamental interactions, electromagnetic interaction, with particular reference to electrostatics. At microscopic level, these phenomena are related to the interaction between charged particles at molecular scale: protons in the nucleus of ionized atoms or molecules, and electrons. The typical macroscopic effects of such

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Electrostatics

In physics, electrostatics is a branch of electromagnetism that studies electric charges “at rest”, that is those charges stationary in time, which in turn generate an electrostatic field. Phenomena of moving charges, which produce currents, are instead studied by electrodynamics. Electrostatic phenomena derive from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. These forces are described

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