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The taiga (from Russian тайга, tajgà, a term of probable Altaic origin) or boreal forest is one of the main terrestrial biomes, formed by coniferous forests that totally cover the sub-arctic boreal regions of Eurasia and America, constituting one third of the world’s forest mass. From the ecological point of view, it can be defined as a […]

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Plants (Plantae Haeckel, 1866), also called vegetables, are single- or multi-cellular, photo-aerobic eukaryotic organisms with chloroplasts of primary endosymbiotic origin. There are more than 400.000 cataloged plant species. Plants include trees, shrubs or bushes, grasses, creepers, succulents, ferns, mosses, green algae, and many others. Most plants are included in the group of Angiosperms, with about 250.000

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Fungi (funguses) or mycetes (from Greek μύκης, mykes) are a kingdom of eukaryotic, unicellular and multicellular organisms: it includes more than 700,000 known species, although diversity has been estimated at more than 3 million species. They are important because they decompose the residues of animals and plants, preparing for the microorganisms of the putrefaction a suitable

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The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation reveals that the cells in a tissue share morphological features and are arranged in an orderly pattern that achieves the tissue’s functions. From the evolutionary perspective, tissues

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The species is at the basis of the classification of living organisms, being the lowest hierarchically obligatory taxonomic level. The choice of an univocal and universal criterion to identify species is however difficult, especially because they are not static entities, but they change in time and space and, therefore, what we observe is a moment of an

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. These differences may consist: Often, sexual dimorphism counts for more than one of the above-mentioned characteristics: for example, male peacocks are larger than females,

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Pollen, or pollen grains, is the set of microgametophytes produced by spermatophytes. In gymnosperms, it is produced in the male cones; in angiosperms, it is produced in the anthers. The main function of pollen is to transport the male gametophyte near the female gametophyte. Pollen grains have a special wall made of sporopollenin, an extremely

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Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries or nectarines, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection. Nectar is primarily an aqueous solution of sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose), but it

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Botany (from the Greek: βοτάνη [botane] = plant), also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the discipline of biology that studies the forms of life in the plant world (flora), especially in relation to their anatomy, physiology, utility, classification, and ecology. The most complex organisms studied by botany constitute the kingdom of plants (or

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