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Climatology (from the Greek κλίμα klima, meaning “region, area”, and λογία logìa) is the branch of earth and atmospheric sciences that deals with the study of climate, or, scientifically speaking, “average weather conditions over a period of at least 20 to 30 years”. Through appropriate physical-mathematical models, called climate models, climate dynamics can be studied […]

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The cytoplasm is the gel-like fluid inside the cell, which represents the portion (about half of the total volume of the cell) contained within the cell membrane present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It consists of cellular organelles dispersed in a fluid matrix called the cytosol. It is the medium for chemical reaction. It

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A biome is a large portion of the biosphere, identified and classified according to the dominant vegetation type, if terrestrial, or the prevalent fauna, if aquatic. Since all living things live by influencing each other, a biome is made up of populations and communities of living things, both multicellular and unicellular, interacting with each other in a

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Phototropism (from Greek phós, light, and trépestai, to move) is a phenomenon related to the orientation of biological organisms, or part of them, with respect to a light source. It can be positive or negative depending on the direction of the response: positive if in the direction of the light source, negative if in the opposite

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Lamarckism [19th century; named after the biologist J.-B. Lamarck] address developed in biology since 1880 (also called neolamarckism), including a very heterogeneous group of theories of evolution that converged in supporting the heritability of acquired characters, the non-random or accidental origin of evolutionary variations or their strict dependence on environmental conditions. Rather than through a

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Bioluminescence is a type of reaction that involves the emission of electromagnetic radiation in the visible and near infrared, by certain living organisms. Bioluminescence is to be considered a particular case of another phenomenon, luminescence. The latter is characterized by the emission of radiation without the emission of heat. For luminescence to occur, there must be

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By nature (word borrowed from the old French nature and is derived from the Latin word natura, or “essential qualities, innate disposition”, and in ancient times, literally meant “birth”) is meant the universe considered in the totality of the phenomena and forces manifested in it, from those of the physical world to those of life in general. The total system of living beings,

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Thermogenesis is a particular metabolic process that consists in the production of heat by the body, especially in adipose and muscle tissue. Metabolism, and therefore also the extent of thermogenesis, depends among other things on genetic factors and can therefore vary from individual to individual. These factors also influence the amount of so-called brown adipose tissue

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Biological tissue

A biological tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix, characterized by similar structure and functions. Tissues represent the next level of organization after cellular organization; in practice, they are formed by cells of the same type that associate together to perform a common function. Each tissue therefore possesses one or more of its

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Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a group of hormone receptor antagonist compounds that can prevent or inhibit the biological effects of androgens, male sex hormones, on sensitive tissues in the body. Antiandrogens usually work by blocking receptors. These compounds work by blocking the biological effects of androgens, or male sex hormones, through blocking

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Humus (from the Latin humus, “soil, earth, terrain”) represents the complex of organic substances, generally in the colloidal state, constituents of the soil and derived from the complete chemical and biological decomposition of the remains of plant and animal organisms (humification), by the intervention of microorganisms and following the action of physical and chemical agents of

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Keratin is a filamentous protein rich in sulfur, with α-helix domains supercoiled two by two (coiled coil), insoluble in common solvents and polymerizing by self-assembly, give the intermediate filaments specific for each epithelium (all epithelia have keratin, but different and / or in smaller quantities). Numerous sulfate groups (cysteines) are present, which create disulfide bridges between

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Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF) is a multifunctional globular protein with antimicrobial activity, both bactericidal and fungicidal. It is found in breast milk and mucosal secretions, such as saliva, tears, and gastric secretions. This protein has strong antibacterial activity due to its iron-binding properties and intrinsic protein structure. It also modulates inflammatory events. In combination with

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Abiogenesis (from the Greek a-bio-genesis, “non-biological origins”), or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life originates from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The transition from non-living system to living organism was not a single event but rather a gradual process of increasing system complexity. Abiogenesis is studied by combining

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The habitat (term that in the Latin language means “he inhabits”) is the place whose physical and environmental characteristics can allow a given species to live, develop, reproduce, ensuring, quality of life, which may decrease or increase according to climatic or demographic changes. It consists of the set of biotopes in which a given organism has been

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies approaches and methods traditionally used in physics to study biological phenomena and processes. Biology studies life in all its forms, from DNA to organisms as a whole, and describes the mechanisms by which living things feed themselves, communicate, interact with their environment, and reproduce. Physics studies the mathematical laws

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A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, “fungus” and τοξίνη toxini, “toxin”) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of kingdom Fungi and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals. Mycotoxins enter the food chain as a result of infection of crops before or after harvest and are typically found

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Totipotency, is the ability of a single stem cell to give rise to all the different cell types in an organism. In other words, it is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells of an organism. This capacity is peculiar to embryonic stem cells up to a certain

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The tundra is a biome (or large plant formation) typical of subpolar regions and occupies areas of the hemisphere, mainly boreal, where the average annual temperature is below zero. Its northern limit is the perennial polar ice (polar ice and ice caps), while in the south it stops at the first forest formations of the taiga (boreal

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Immune system

The immune system is a complex integrated network of chemical and cellular mediators, biological structures and processes, developed over the course of evolution to defend the body against any form of chemical, traumatic or infectious insult to its integrity. To function properly, an immune system must be able to detect a wide variety of agents, known as

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A biotoxin is a poison produced by the metabolic activity of certain living beings, such as bacteria, plants, and fungi that serve as a biological defense, which protects the toxin-producer from being eaten. Many biotoxins can be further classified into what kind of effects they have on the body. Some of these groups include the following: Marine

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Embryology (in Greek εμβρυολογία) is the branch of biology that studies the processes by which organisms grow and develop before birth. Today embryology studies all those stages that from a female gamete (egg or egg cell) fertilized by a male gamete (spermatozoon) lead to a mature adult individual. The term embryology, therefore, refers to the study

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Air is a mixture of aeriform substances (gases and vapors) that constitutes the lowest part of the earth’s atmosphere. It is essential for the life of most animal and vegetable organisms, in particular for human life, so its safeguard is fundamental and is regulated by specific legislative norms. This gaseous mixture finds many applications in industry

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