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Arts

Mir iskusstva

Mir iskusstva (Russian: «Мир искусства», IPA: [ˈmʲir ɪˈskustvə], World of Art) is an artistic movement founded in 1890 by a group of Russian intellectuals led by Sergei Diaghilev. The members of the group were scholars, art lovers, educated and refined, from a social background far removed from that of the Peredvizhniki, whose members came largely from […]

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Visual arts

The area of visual arts is extremely broad, since any artistic form that results in a visible object can be defined in this way. Other arts, such as theater, music or opera, constitute separate categories of figurative type, although the boundaries are not always well defined: see for example the body art or interactive art, or even

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Sketch [croquis]

Sketch represents the preparatory study of a small-scale model of a work of art (e.g., a painting, sculpture, fresco, monument, or architectural work) before it is finally executed. The sketch is a well-defined preparatory study, but it is distinguished by the use of color; it is in fact executed in tempera or oil on supports such

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Serigraphy [screen printing]

Serigraphy or screen printing is a permeographic printing technique that today uses a polyester fabric, steel fabric or nylon fabric stretched over an aluminum, painted metal or wood frame called a “screen printing frame” or “screen printing frame” as a matrix. The fabric used is also called “screen printing fabric” or “screen printing fabric”. The term “serigraphy” comes

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Relief printing [embossing]

The relief printing process is a family of printing methods where a printing block, plate, or matrix that has had ink applied to its surface, but not to any recessed areas, is brought into contact with the paper. The relief is the positive image and represents the printing surface. The areas of the printing plate with ink will leave

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Pointillisme [pointillism]

Pointillisme (pointillism) was a pictorial current that emerged around 1885, baptized Neo-Impressionism by the critic F. Fénéon in 1886, the year in which G. Seurat presented La Grande-Jatte (Chicago, Art Institute) at the Salon des Indépendants. An article entitled Neo-Impressionism, in which the technical procedures and aesthetics of the movement were exposed, was also published by

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Art Nouveau

The Art nouveau style took on different names in the various countries where it spread: in Italy floral or liberty style (from the English warehouses of A. Lasenby Liberty, which sold Art nouveau objects); in Germany Jugendstil, in Austria Sezessionstil, in Spain modernism, while Art nouveau is the name it took on in France and

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Textile

In the industrial field, a textile is made up of a thin layer of textile products, almost always yarn, woven together; it is flexible in every sense, soft and endowed with a certain elasticity. According to the type of yarn used and the use to which they are destined, tissues can vary in compactness, solidity, thickness and

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Naturalism

Naturalism is a term common to currents of thought that consider nature, in all its aspects, not only as a fundamental object of philosophical reflection, but also, and above all, as a decisive and absolute point of reference with regard to the life and interests of humanity. Therefore the term naturalism can refer for example to:

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Les Nabis

Les Nabis is a pictorial movement that arose in France in the late nineteenth century by a group of young artists, all born between 1860 and 1870: Maurice Denis (1870-1943), Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Aristide Maillol, Felix Vallotton, Paul-Elie Ranson (1861-1909), Jan Verkade, Ker Xavier Roussel, G. Lacombe. The term, chosen by the painter

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism began around 1750 and ended with the end of the Napoleonic Empire in 1815, as a logical consequence of the Enlightenment culture and an era of great revolutions, it is proposed as an antithesis to the excesses of the Baroque and Rococo. What distinguishes the artistic style of these years is, thanks to the many

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Divisionism

Divisionism is an Italian painting movement that developed between 1885 and 1915; it was essentially born from Impressionism and further developed its research on the decomposition of colors and light. Spread in several parts of Italy but with the main artistic center in Milan, was officially born in 1891, when the first pointillist works (and in

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Neo-Impressionism

Neo-Impressionism is a pictorial movement that developed as part of the “reaction” to the fleeting nature of the Impressionist fragment, between 1884 and 1890. The name is due to the critic F. Fénéon who, in reviewing for the Belgian magazine “L’Art Moderne” the Grande Jatte by G. Seurat, presented at the Second Salon des Indépendants in

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Fauvism [fauvisme]

Fauvisme was a French painting movement of the first half of the twentieth century. The term fauves (“beasts”) was coined by the French critic L. Vauxcelles to indicate those painters, linked by a custom of life and work together (H. Matisse. M. Vlaminck. A. Derain, A. Marquet, A.E.O. Friesz, H.-Ch. Mansuin. Ch. Camoin. J. Puy. K.

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Sculpture

Sculpture is the art of giving shape to an object starting from a raw material or assembling different materials together. The term sculpture also refers to the final product, which is any three-dimensional object obtained as an expression of artistic inspiration. Like many other terms in the art world, the concept of sculpture has evolved over

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Drama

Drama (from the Greek δρᾶμα, “drama” = action, history) is literature intended for performance. The form is often combined with music and dance, as in opera and musical theatre, or on radio or television. In the broadest sense it is a narrative plot completed and intended for theatrical performance. It can be in written verbal form

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Woodcut

Woodcut, a type of relief printing, is the oldest printmaking technique, and the only one traditionally used in the Far East, in which knives and other tools are used to carve a design into the surface of a wooden block. It was probably first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, and by the 5th

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Screenprinting

Screenprinting (occasionally known as “silkscreen”, or “serigraphy”) is a printmaking process where ink is forced through a mesh screen onto a surface. Making certain areas of the screen impervious to printing ink creates a stencil, which blocks the printing ink from passing through the screen. Ink is simply pushed through the stencil against the surface

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Relief printing

The relief printing process is a family of printing methods where a printing block, plate, or matrix that has had ink applied to its surface, but not to any recessed areas, is brought into contact with the paper. The relief is the positive image and represents the printing surface. The areas of the printing plate

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Printmaking

Printmaking is an artistic process based on the principle of transferring images from a matrix onto another surface, most often paper or fabric, parchment, plastic, or other support, by various techniques of multiplication, under the direct supervision of or by the hand of the artist. Traditional printmaking techniques include woodcut, etching, engraving, and lithography, while modern

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Lithography

Lithography is a planographic printmaking process invented in 1798 by Alois Senefelder and based on the chemical repulsion of oil and water, in which a design is drawn onto a flat stone (or prepared metal plate, usually zinc or aluminum) and affixed by means of a chemical reaction. A porous surface, normally limestone, is used; the image is

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Holography

Holography is an optical technology for storing visual information in the form of a very fine interference bangs using coherent laser light, appropriately projected; the image created by the interference bangs is characterized by an illusion of three-dimensionality. It is more properly a parallax effect in the perception of the image, i.e. the image is perceived

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Etching

The etching is an intaglio printmaking process in which lines or areas are incised using acid into a metal plate in order to hold the ink. In etching, the plate can be made of iron, copper, or zinc. Although the first dated etching is by Albrecht Dürer in 1515, the process is believed to have been invented by Daniel

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Engraving

Engraving is an intaglio printmaking process in which lines are cut into a metal plate in order to hold the ink. The process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal

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