Roma [Rome]

Rome (Rome, Italian and Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of the Italian Republic. It is also the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city and the region of Lazio. The municipality of Rome has a special administrative order, called “Roma Capitale” and governed by a law of the State.

City located about 25 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea, in the heart of the Roman Campagna, a vast undulating plain open between the mountains Sabatini, Sabini mountains and the Alban Hills, and crossed from North-East to South-West from the course of the Tiber, which immediately to N of the town receives from the left the river Aniene. Rome is the largest and most populous city in Italy and historical, artistic and cultural center of great importance, is also, with the State of the Vatican City, the historical and political capital of Christianity.

The city, which has developed mainly on the left side of the Tiber, lies on the bottom of the alluvial valley and the modest hills formed by the residual edges of the extreme northwestern sector of the wide volcanic expansion of Lazio, fractionated by the erosion of the Tiber and its tributaries in a dozen modest hills. In the course of the centuries these were progressively flattened and at the same time the small valleys and depressions that separated them were partially filled in, so that the original steep slopes are hardly noticeable anymore, except in the Capitol, the Aventine and the Palatine.

The topographical position was favorable to the first settlement of the city: the presence, in fact, of such hilly strips from the top flattened, which did not offer obstacles to building, and steep slopes, suitable for defense, and the easy passage of a navigable river near a river island, the Tiber Island, were certainly some of the main reasons that influenced the choice of location of the city and its initial development. This was later favored by the very advantageous geographical situation due to the proximity of the sea, the navigability of the Tiber up to its mouth, the vast surrounding plain and the valleys converging in it, which facilitated the penetration towards the interior of the peninsula in every direction.

Until 1972 the city, according to the official division, was divided into twenty-two districts, included within the circle of the Aurelian walls except for the Prati district; thirty-five districts, three of which are not part of the city proper (Ostia Ponente, Ostia Levante and Castel Fusano marine districts) and six suburbs, in addition to fifty-nine areas in which the section of the Roman countryside included in the vast municipality was divided.

The city of Rome is the largest of the Italian cities, larger even than some provinces. In addition to Rome, the main centers developed within its territory, almost all linked to the big city by close functional relationships, are located along the sea or near the coast. They are: Lido di Ostia, bathing and residential center immediately south of the mouth of the Tiber; Ostia Antica, in its hinterland, near the ruins of the ancient port city; Fiumicino (autonomous municipality since 1992), to the right of the navigable mouth of the Tiber, at which was placed (with opening to traffic in 1961) the intercontinental airport and Maccarese, in the heart of the homonymous reclamation.

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