republic is the form of Government in which every citizen in a State freely participates in the political life by directly or indirectly electing their own representatives in the parliament or the head of state and government, whose mandates are temporary. It may include a written constitution or an oral constitutional system. A Republic can be:

  • Parliamentary​: it is the form of Republic in which the people vote the representatives of the Parliament via free political election, whose in turn elect the government and the head of state. The head of state is also the guarantor of the Constitution, but has limited powers since the real control of the executive is held by the head of government.
  • Presidential​: it is the form of Republic in which the head of state is directly elected by the people and is also the head of government, therefore of the executive, who also elects the ministers. All their mandates are temporary.
  • Semi-presidential​: it is a form of Republic in which the people directly elect their head of state through an election and their representative in the parliament through another one. The head of the state decides the head of government, but this needs also the legitimacy of the parliament to exercise any activity. The executive is held by the head of state along with the head of government and the cabinet of ministers.
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