Social Sciences

Dialogic anthropology

Dialogic anthropology is a line of research in which the recognition of the essential role of dialogue as a privileged mode of expression of human intersubjectivity is central. The dialogical anthropology is a theoretical acquisition of the last decades of the twentieth century, whose main exponent is the American anthropologist D. Tedlock. Tedlock. Between research in […]

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Policy

Policy is a deliberate system of guidelines to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Monetary policy In economics, monetary policy is the set of objectives, instruments and actions taken by a state to modify and direct money, credit and finance in order to

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Code of conduct

To educate and guide others in the organization, a set of ethics, or a code of conduct, should be developed and distributed. Kimberlee Leonard, who writes for the Houston Chronicle, states, “A code of ethics is important for businesses to establish to ensure that everyone in the company is clear on the mission, values and guiding

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Autarky

Economics [closed economy] In economics, autarky is a kind of political policy that aims to nullify a country’s economic dependence on foreign countries by encouraging internal production of all goods needed by the national community. The pursuit of these objectives leads on the one hand to neglect the advantages of importing goods at a lower cost than

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Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence (term deriving from the Latin language iurisprudentia, derivation of iurisprudens, i.e. prudens iuris: expert in law, or juridical sciences; it refers to the exercise of good judgment, common sense, and caution, especially in the conduct of practical matters) is the science that studies law and its interpretation. In a more technical sense, the term indicates the set of judgments

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Negligence

Negligence is another type of tort that has two meanings. It is the name of a cause of action in a tort, and it is a form of conduct that does not meet the reasonable standard of care (Kionka, 2013). The cause of action is the reason for the damage, and the standard of care is based on the

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Geographical region

A geographical region or physical region, or briefly region, is a large extension of land surface distinguished by its own characteristics that can vary from the conformation of the land to the geographical position, climate, fauna, flora, up to characteristics dependent on the action of man, ie culture, history and language. Therefore it can coincide in whole

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Apathy

Apathy (from the greek a-pathos, literally “without emotion”) is a strong absence of motivation and consequent strong reduction of purposeful behavior. The absence of motivation to live generates a drastic reduction of emotionality and a strong emotional indifference to the outside world, then a constant feeling of boredom in living. Apathy is distinguished from depression in

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Social group

In sociology, a social group is a collection of individuals who interact with one another, in an orderly fashion, based on shared expectations regarding their respective behavior. It is a collection of people whose statuses and roles are interrelated. Human beings are inclined to cooperate, compete, analyze, produce ideas, plan, and decide in groups; groups

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Roma [Rome]

Rome (Rome, Italian and Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of the Italian Republic. It is also the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city and the region of Lazio. The municipality of Rome has a special administrative order, called “Roma Capitale” and governed by a law of the State. City located about 25 km from the

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices, relations, and processes by which corporations are directed and controlled. The concept of corporate governance is relatively new compared to the entire history of free trade and business formation. There was likely some “code of honor” followed by businesses in the past, but it wasn’t until the 21st century

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Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics (also, behavioural economics) is an interdisciplinary branch common to psychology and economics, studying the influence of psychological, emotional, cultural and social factors on economic decisions (individual and institutional), with the tools available to the psychological sciences; introducing the irrationality factor into the economic sciences, not considered by classical economics. Behavioral economics studies the effects

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Phobia

The term phobia (from the greek φόβος, phóbos, “panic, fear”) indicates an irrational and persistent fear and repulsion of certain situations, objects, activities, animals or people, which can, in severe cases limit the autonomy of the subject as in the case of avoidance, but that does not represent a real danger to the person. Phobias are disproportionate

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Joy

Joy is the state of fulfillment and happiness that usually occurs when we achieve goals, see a desire fulfilled or a need satisfied. It is characterized by specific expressive patterns – such as smiling – and physiological patterns, such as accelerated heart rate and increased arousal. The aspect that makes joy so attractive and important is

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Archeology

Archaeology or archeology (from the Greek ἀρχαιολογία, composed of the words ἀρχαῖος, “ancient,” and λόγος, “discourse” or “study”) is the science that studies past civilizations and human cultures and their relationships with their surroundings through the collection, documentation, and analysis of the material traces they left behind (architecture, artifacts, biological and human remains). Origin and evolution of archaeology

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Tort

The word “tort” means “wrong” in French. Thus, torts are wrongs committed against others who suffer some form of damage as a result. While these damages could also be the result of criminal activity, the criminal element of the matter is not tried in a civil lawsuit. The standard of proof is lower for civil

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Surprise

Surprise is a neutral emotional reaction, or an elementary and primitive emotion, which originates immediately when faced with a new or unusual situation, and which is quickly diluted, giving rise to the emotions that conform to this stimulation. For psychology, it occupies a central position at the cognitive level. Taken as a basic emotion, hand in

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Negotiation

Negotiation is a communicative process between two or more actors aimed at formulating a joint decision. It is also one of the four basic types of ADR, or alternative dispute resolution (i.e., without going through the courts). An article in the Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes defined negotiation as the “process by which parties with nonidentical preferences allocate

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Guilt

The feeling of guilt is an unpleasant psychic state resulting from an action experienced as reprehensible (violation of an ethical, moral or religious norm). It is associated with a lowering of the level of self-esteem and the tendency to assume an expiatory or reparatory behavior. In depressive states, guilt can be a global feeling, not in relation

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Mood

The mood is an affective state, which differs from emotions and feelings for being less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked by a recent stimulus or event. Etymologically, the word mood derives from the Old English mōd which denoted military courage but could also refer to a person’s humor, temper, or disposition at a particular time.

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Bureaucracy

The term bureaucracy traditionally refers to the complex of offices and officials that make up the public administration: the hybrid etymology of the term, which combines the French “bureau” (office) to the Greek “krátos” (power), reveals its late origin and derivation of French-speaking matrix. The “power of offices” refers to the organization of people and resources for

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Warranty

A warranty is a guarantee on the good that comes as part of the sales contract, but contract law treats warranties as an additional form of contract that binds the selling party to undertake a certain action. Typically, the selling party has an obligation to provide a product that achieves a specified task, or to deliver a

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Hypochondria

The term hypochondriasis (or hypochondria also called pathophobia, or disease anxiety) is a clinical form of anxiety disorders characterized by unjustified and excessive concern for one’s own or others’ health, with the belief that any symptom experienced by a subject is a sign of a severe disease. The term hypochondria derives from the Greek ὑποχόνδρια, composed of the prefix

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