Universal Encyclopedia of Knowledge

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Aberration

In optics, aberration is a flaw in the imaging properties of optical systems such as lenses or mirrors that causes light to be blurred, distorted, or scattered over a region of space rather than focused in a point. The aberration of an optical system is defined as any deformation of the image with respect to […]

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Politics

The term politics (from the ancient Greek politiká “city affairs”, der. from polis, “city”) is used to refer to the activities and methods of government, or even, in the political lexicon, to so-called opposition activity. It can refer to states, confederations and intergovernmental organizations, or to more limited local and territorial entities, such as regions

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Measurand

The measurand is defined as a physical quantity to be measured (such as length, weight, and angle). Specifying a quantity requires: It is important to emphasize that the term “measurand” does not refer to the object or phenomenon on which a measurement is made, but to a specific physical quantity that characterizes it. For example,

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Measurement

In metrology, the term measurement is closely associated with all activities related to scientific, industrial, commercial, and human aspects. It is defined as the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event that can be compared with other objects or events. The knowledge of the reality that surrounds us is based

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Microelectromechanical systems [MEMS]

MEMS inductor

Microelectromechanical systems, often referred to as MEMS, are a collection of microscopic devices of different types (mechanical, electrical or electronic) integrated on the same substrate of semiconductor material, e.g. silicon, combining the electrical properties of semiconductor devices with opto-mechanical properties. MEMS consist of components between 1 and 100 micrometers in size (i.e., 0.001 to 0.1

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Continuum body

A continuum body is defined as a body whose material points are identifiable with the geometric points of a regular region of physical space, and which is endowed with mass for which there is a mass density function that can represent its measure. The continuum body is a phenomenological model that includes both solids and

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Biosphere

The biosphere is the biological system that includes all the ecosystems of the Earth and therefore can be considered formed by all the physical environments of the planet (land, or lithosphere; water, or hydrosphere; air, or atmosphere), which can host life forms, and communities of living organisms that inhabit these environments. The biosphere can be imagined as

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Panda ant (Euspinolia Militaris)

The Euspinolia Militaris (also called Panda Ant – first described in 1938 in Chile) is a member of the family Mutillidae, part of the order Hymenoptera, which also includes wasps, bees, and ants. Scientific classification Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Vespoidea Family Mutillidae Genus Euspinolia Anatomy While the coloration

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Nanoelectromechanical systems [NEMS]

Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) are a class of devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale. NEMS mark the next logical stage of miniaturization of so-called micro electro-mechanical systems, or MEMS devices, which typically integrate transistor-like nanoelectronics with mechanical actuators, pumps or motors, and in can thereby form physical, biological and chemical senses. The name

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Materialism

materialism

Materialism is the usually monistic philosophical view that the only reality that can truly be said to exist is matter and all that results from its continuous transformation. This means that all things are fundamentally and essentially material; that is, the foundation and substance of reality is material. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism.

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Empiricism

Empiricism (from Latin empiricus, der. from Greek ἐμπειρία, empeirìa, “experience”), is the philosophical movement that arose in England in the second half of the seventeenth century, according to which human knowledge is derived exclusively from the senses or from experience. See also: Empiricism vs. Sensationalism vs Materialism. It is opposed to “innatism” and “rationalism”, which

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Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism

A fundamental part of the history of philosophy and science, or rather the history of Western culture, is certainly constituted by three philosophical currents that developed especially between the 17th and 18th centuries in France and England: Sensationalism, Empiricism, and Materialism. At first, they were presented as theories of knowledge/understanding, that is, of esprit (the

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Social class

In social and political studies, a social class is defined as a homogeneous group of individuals who share similar economic and cultural conditions and occupy a specific position in society. This position is derived from their productive activity, wealth, income, authority, prestige, and power in the hierarchy. The nomenclature of social classes has changed many

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Sensationalism

Sensationalism (from 17th-century Latin sensatio, der. from ancient Latin sensus, “sense”) is the tendency to give exaggerated emphasis to certain news in order to arouse the interest of readers and public opinion. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism. It is a type of editorial tactic in the mass media and a style of news

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Thermodynamic time

Although it is easy to imagine apparently reversible processes in time (the swing of a pendulum, the motion of the planets, the trajectory of a marble bouncing between the sides of a billiard table), microscopic analysis shows that even these processes are in fact irreversible thermodynamic processes that define a unique way in which time

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