Universal Encyclopedia of Knowledge

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Dysmorphophobia [body dysmorphic disorder]

Body dysmorphic disorder (historically known as dysmorphophobia) belongs to the broader category of somatoform disorders, which are characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that are not justified by a general medical condition or by the effects of a substance or other mental disorder. The hallmark of dysmorphophobia is preoccupation with a defect in physical […]

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of both intrusive thoughts (called “obsessions”) and compulsive behaviors. Obsessions Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause anxiety, are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate, and are defined as “egodystonic,” i.e., distant from the self-concept. To give an example, an obsession might

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Climatology

Climatology (from the Greek κλίμα klima, meaning “region, area”, and λογία logìa) is the branch of earth and atmospheric sciences that deals with the study of climate, or, scientifically speaking, “average weather conditions over a period of at least 20 to 30 years”. Through appropriate physical-mathematical models, called climate models, climate dynamics can be studied

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Metazoa

metazoa

Metazoa, are multicellular organisms generally recognized as animals. In the past, protozoa and metazoa were considered animals. In fact, metazoans reflected descent from a protozoan ancestor. Now, by animal we mean only the multicellular metazoa, known as Animalia. Metazoa are motile, heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes. Compared to protozoa, metazoans are large organisms. Body structure Metazoans have

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Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originated during the “Spring and Autumn Period” and the “Warring States Period”, a period known as the Hundred Schools of Thought, which saw significant cultural and intellectual developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, its elements have existed for thousands of years: some can be found in the

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Analytic philosophy

The term analytic philosophy refers to a stream of thought that has developed since the early 20th century, mainly as a result of the work of Bertrand Russell, George Edward Moore, the various members of the Vienna Circle, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. By extension, we refer to the entire subsequent philosophical tradition influenced by these authors,

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Mass media

A mass media is a medium capable of conveying information to a large audience; the phrase, along with the term “mass communication,” was coined in the first half of the 20th century in Anglo-Saxon circles. According to McQuail’s definition, “mass media” or “mass communication” are means designed to carry out forms of communication “openly, at

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Trajectory

A trajectory or flight path is the path that a mass moving object follows through space as a function of time. In classical mechanics, it is generally a continuous, derivable curve in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It can be derived from the law of time by separating it into the parametric equations in time of the

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Exponentiation

Exponentiation is one of the mathematical operations that replace multiple multiplications between equal numbers or variables, simplifying both writing and processing. If the exponent is greater than 1, the power is the product of as many factors as are indicated by the number of the exponent, all equal to the base. From this statement it is

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Dispersion index

In statistics, a dispersion index (or dispersion indicator or variability index or variance index) is an index that briefly describes the variability of a quantitative statistical distribution. Specifically, it measures how far the values in the distribution are from a central value chosen as a reference. The central value is usually a position index. The

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Statistical dispersion

In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed. Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range. For example, if the variance of the data in a set is large, the data is widely spread. On the

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Ecological economics

Ecological economics is an approach to economic theory that focuses on a strong link between ecosystem balance and people’s well-being. Sometimes referred to as “green economics,” it stands in sharp contrast to other streams of thought in economics. “Green economists” often hold more radical positions than those theorized by environmental economics, which generally hold more

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International economics

International economics is that branch of economic science that has as its object of study the economic relations between different countries, as well as the analytical models for interpreting them. International economics can be analyzed from different perspectives, however, the academic literature seems to have focused heavily on the following aspects: International economics uses the

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Foreseeability

Foreseeability is the ability to reasonably anticipate the potential results of an action, such as the damage or injury that may happen if one is negligent or breaches a contract. Foreseeability determines if the harm resulting from action could reasonably have been predicted. The test is used in most cases only with respect to the type

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Monomial

It is defined monomial as a literal algebraic expression, consisting of a numerical part (coefficient) and a literal part among which only multiplication and exponentiation operations appear; for example: \[\dfrac{1}{2}x;\;7x^2y;\;-9x^n\] The monomial degree is defined as the sum of all the exponents of the literal part. Monomes that have the same literal part (with identical exponent) are

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Economy

Economy (from Greek οἶκος (oikos), “house” also understood as “household goods,” and νόμος (nomos) “rule” or “law”) means both the organization of the use of scarce (finite or finite) resources when implemented in order to best meet individual or collective needs (formal meaning) and the system of interactions that ensures such an organization (substantive meaning), a

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Ultrasonography

Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that uses the transmission of high-frequency sound waves into the body to generate an echo signal that is converted by a computer into a real-time image of anatomy and physiology. Ultrasonography is the least invasive of all imaging techniques, and it is therefore used more freely in sensitive situations such as

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Atomic number

Neutral atoms of an element contain an equal number of protons and electrons. The number of protons determines an element’s atomic number (Z) and distinguishes one element from another. For example, carbon’s atomic number (Z) is 6 because it has 6 protons. The number of neutrons can vary to produce isotopes, which are atoms of the same

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Chelation

Chelation is a process in which a polydentate ligand bonds to a metal ion, forming a ring. The complex produced by this process is called a chelate, and the polydentate ligand is referred to as a chelating agent. The term chelate was first applied in 1920 by Sir Gilbert T. Morgan and H.D.K. Drew, who

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the branch of physics that studies the atomic nucleus, its constituents, protons and neutrons, and their interactions; its objective is the study of nuclear phenomena, of the elementary constituents of the universe and their interactions. The complexity of experiments on one side and the refinement of research methodologies on the other side

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Nuclear force

Strong nuclear interaction, has a property called color charge, holds quarks together, elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, and also the latter within the nucleus. It is absolutely the most intense force among those known so far, to the point that it is not possible at low energy to isolate and separate a single quark from

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Voicing

Voicing is whether the vocal folds vibrate or not. The sound /s/ is called voiceless because there is no vibration, and the sound /z/ is called voiced because the vocal folds do vibrate (you can feel on your neck if there is vibration.) Only three sounds in English have aspiration, the sounds /b/, /p/ and /t/. An extra puff of air

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Soundproofing

For sound insulation or soundproofing (or acoustic shielding) means all those actions aimed at limiting the unwanted sound and noise transmission, usually by introducing sound-absorbing materials in the path of the sound waves. The application fields where insulation or soundproofing measures are necessary are many, including recording studios, rehearsal rooms, cinemas, and environments dedicated to audio-video, residential, offices, and public places, industry,

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Aboral

Aboral, literally “standing away from the mouth”: compound word, of Latin origin, derived from ab (from) and os, oris (mouth); its opposite is adoral or, simply, oral. The term is used in anatomy to indicate the opposite direction or location of the mouth, the pole opposite the oral pole: when speaking of localizations, or directions,

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