Natural Sciences


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Physics (a term derived from the Latin physica, “nature,” which in turn derives from the ancient Greek τὰ φυσικά, tà physiká, “[the] natural things,” from φύσις [phýsis], both of common Indo-European origin) is the science of nature that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space-time, and the related entities of energy […]

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Climatology (from the Greek κλίμα klima, meaning “region, area”, and λογία logìa) is the branch of earth and atmospheric sciences that deals with the study of climate, or, scientifically speaking, “average weather conditions over a period of at least 20 to 30 years”. Through appropriate physical-mathematical models, called climate models, climate dynamics can be studied

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Metazoa, are multicellular organisms generally recognized as animals. In the past, protozoa and metazoa were considered animals. In fact, metazoans reflected descent from a protozoan ancestor. Now, by animal we mean only the multicellular metazoa, known as Animalia. Metazoa are motile, heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes. Compared to protozoa, metazoans are large organisms. Body structure Metazoans have

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Atomic number

Neutral atoms of an element contain an equal number of protons and electrons. The number of protons determines an element’s atomic number (Z) and distinguishes one element from another. For example, carbon’s atomic number (Z) is 6 because it has 6 protons. The number of neutrons can vary to produce isotopes, which are atoms of the same

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Chelation is a process in which a polydentate ligand bonds to a metal ion, forming a ring. The complex produced by this process is called a chelate, and the polydentate ligand is referred to as a chelating agent. The term chelate was first applied in 1920 by Sir Gilbert T. Morgan and H.D.K. Drew, who

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the branch of physics that studies the atomic nucleus, its constituents, protons and neutrons, and their interactions; its objective is the study of nuclear phenomena, of the elementary constituents of the universe and their interactions. The complexity of experiments on one side and the refinement of research methodologies on the other side

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Nuclear force

Strong nuclear interaction, has a property called color charge, holds quarks together, elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, and also the latter within the nucleus. It is absolutely the most intense force among those known so far, to the point that it is not possible at low energy to isolate and separate a single quark from

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Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the branch of modern physics that studies the properties of atoms as isolated systems, including electrons and atomic nuclei, mainly concerning the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This is a field of physics studied at the beginning of XX century with the provision

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Mass number

An element’s mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons. The small contribution of mass from electrons is disregarded in calculating the mass number. This approximation of mass can be used to easily calculate how many neutrons an element has by simply subtracting the number of protons from the

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Electromagnetic interaction

The electromagnetic interaction is responsible for the chemical properties of atoms and the structure of molecules. The electric charge determines the intensity and the direction of the interaction between charged bodies, bodies with equal electric charges repel each other, while bodies with opposite electric charges attract each other. The electromagnetic force is the result of local interaction

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Infrasound sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second of the “normal“ limit of human hearing (20 kHz). Infrasound is characterized by an ability to get around obstacles with little dissipation. The study of such sound waves is sometimes referred to as infrasonics, covering sounds beneath 20 Hz down

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Thermodispersion is the term used to indicate the set of processes by which the release of heat from the body surface is realized. Thermodispersion together with thermogenesis (heat production) contributes to keeping the body temperature constant (thermoregulation). Thermodispersion is particularly important in case of increased body temperature (fever), which requires an extra supply of fluids; it

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Stable nuclide

Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay. When such nuclides are referred to in relation to specific elements, they are usually termed stable isotopes. Only 90 nuclides of the first 40 elements are energetically stable for any type of decay except, in theory, proton

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Modern physics

Modern physics is defined as the set of theoretical and experimental scientific developments since the twentieth century, have marked a conceptual leap from classical physics, developed since the seventeenth century, to explain phenomena that were not describable with a “classical” approach (quantum mechanics, theory of relativity). It is not possible to indicate with precision a

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Demagnetization [degaussing]

The demagnetization is the process by which the magnetic charge is eliminated from an object, both of a ferrous metal nature and of another nature. Degaussing is the process of decreasing or eliminating a remnant magnetic field. It is named after the gauss, a unit of magnetism, which in turn was named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. Due to magnetic hysteresis, it is generally not

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Experimental physics

Experimental physics includes disciplines and sub-disciplines that directly use the meanings of observations of physical phenomena in order to obtain data and information about the Universe, formulate or validate physical theories and physical laws. The goal of all these disciplines is to group and explain/interpret all the data obtained with methods that vary greatly: from

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The Pterygota (from Ancient Greek πτερυγωτός, pterugōtós, “winged”) are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The systematics of Pterygotes is essentially based on metamorphosis and

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Induction is a physical phenomenon that is produced in bodies, or in space, due to the presence of other bodies. Therefore in physics induction is defined as any phenomenon where a body close to another body modifies some characteristics or determines some properties. The asymmetric distribution of electric charges in a conductor placed in an electric

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Ions are atoms or groups of atoms or molecules, non-neutral, that is, having electrical charges (one or more than one) positive and/or negative, due (respectively) to the loss or acquisition of an electron. The total charge of an ion is equal to the difference between the number of protons, minus the number of electrons. An ion

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Complex systems physics

Complex systems physics is a relatively recent branch of modern physics that studies the physical behavior of complex systems such as the economic system (ecophysics) or the climate system assumed as nonlinear and multi-component dynamical systems. In modern physics a complex system is a multicomponent dynamical system, that is composed of several subsystems that typically

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Freezing (or solidification) is a phase transition where a liquid (a disordered structure) turns into a solid (a more ordered structure) when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. The IUPAC officially adopts the term “solidification” also to refer to the transition of state between the gas phase and the solid phase (which is commonly

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The cytoplasm is the gel-like fluid inside the cell, which represents the portion (about half of the total volume of the cell) contained within the cell membrane present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It consists of cellular organelles dispersed in a fluid matrix called the cytosol. It is the medium for chemical reaction. It

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Aculeata is a subclade of Hymenoptera. The name is a reference to the defining feature of the group, which is the modification of the ovipositor into a sting (thus, the group could be called “stinging wasps”, though the group also contains the ants and the bees). In other words, the structure that was originally used to

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Metamagnetism is a physical phenomenon that determines a sudden (often, dramatic) increase in the magnetization of a material; the transition for which some antiferromagnetic substances (FeCl2, MnAu2 etc.) become ferromagnetic. The metamagnetism occurs in the presence of a strong magnetic field and at a certain temperature. The metamagnetic behavior may have quite different physical causes for different

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A biome is a large portion of the biosphere, identified and classified according to the dominant vegetation type, if terrestrial, or the prevalent fauna, if aquatic. Since all living things live by influencing each other, a biome is made up of populations and communities of living things, both multicellular and unicellular, interacting with each other in a

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