Pythagoras (Ancient Greek: Πυθαγόρας, Pythagóras; Samos, between 580 BC and 570 BC – Metapontum, c. 495 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and legislator.

Possibly the son of Mnesarchus, a well-known merchant and seal engraver, and Parthenides, one of the most beautiful women of Samos, later named Pythais, he was persuaded to follow in his father’s footsteps, but from an early age he instead showed a flair for scientific and philosophical subjects, which led him to travel around the Mediterranean in search of knowledge and learning, which he gained mainly from the mystery schools of ancient Egypt. He was also a thaumaturge, an astronomer, a scientist, a politician, and the founder in Croton of one of the most important schools of thought in human history, which took its name from him: the Pythagorean School.

We owe to him the birth of the concept of esotericism in the West, based on the transmission of knowledge only to small circles of followers. His thought was of enormous importance for the development of Western science, since he was the first to recognize the effectiveness of mathematics in describing the world, understood not as a set of abstract and theoretical knowledge, but as an art of knowing how to live. The Italic School, later named after him, was the crucible in which much knowledge was developed, especially philosophical, ethical and political knowledge, but also mathematical knowledge and its applications, such as the famous Pythagorean theorem.

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