The term abstraction derives from the Latin abstractio which in turn takes up the Greek one of “αφαίρεσις” (aphàiresis). Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon (removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics), selecting only the aspects which are […]

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Idea (from Greek ἰδέα idea “form, pattern,” from the root of ἰδεῖν idein, “to see”) is a term used since the dawn of philosophy, originally indicating a primordial and substantial essence, but today has taken on a narrower meaning in the common language, generally referring to a representation or a “drawing” of the mind; original evidence

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Art Nouveau

The Art nouveau style took on different names in the various countries where it spread: in Italy floral or liberty style (from the English warehouses of A. Lasenby Liberty, which sold Art nouveau objects); in Germany Jugendstil, in Austria Sezessionstil, in Spain modernism, while Art nouveau is the name it took on in France and

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An abbey is a type of monastery used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. Abbeys provide a complex of buildings and land for religious activities, work, and housing of Christian monks and nuns. The name derives from the late Latin abbatīa, ‘what belongs to the abbot’: the term initially

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On the geologic time scale, the Jurassic is the middle period of the Mesozoic era; the name was introduced in 1795 by A. von Humboldt, for whom, however, the Jurassic soils were included between the Permian and the Buntsandstein (lower Trias); later A. Boué placed the Jurassic exactly between Trias and Cretaceous, and A. Brongniart

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In the industrial field, a textile is made up of a thin layer of textile products, almost always yarn, woven together; it is flexible in every sense, soft and endowed with a certain elasticity. According to the type of yarn used and the use to which they are destined, tissues can vary in compactness, solidity, thickness and

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Poetry (from the Greek ποίησις, poiesis, with the meaning of “creation”) is a form of literary art that creates, with the choice and combination of words according to particular metric laws (which cannot be ignored by the author), a composition made of phrases called verses, in which the semantic meaning is linked to the musical sound of phonemes.

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Bioethics (from ancient Greek ἔθος (or ήθος), “èthos”, character or behavior, custom, habit, and βίος, “bìos”, life) is a discipline that deals with moral issues related to biological research and medicine. Bioethics is interdisciplinary in nature and involves philosophy, philosophy of science, medicine, clinical bioethics, biology, law, biolaw, sociology, psychology and biopolitics, in the different moral

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Ethics, also called moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that “denotes that part of philosophy which deals with custom, that is, human behavior.” The term is derived from the ancient Greek ἦθος (êthos), meaning “character”, “behavior”, or, less likely, from ἔθος (èthos) meaning “custom”, “habit”, “custom”. It is descriptive, if it focuses on describing

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Rationalism (from the Latin word ratio, “reason”) is a philosophical movement based on the assumption that human reason can in principle be the source of all knowledge. In other words: philosophical movement whose foundation is the persuasion that reality and being are structured in the same way as our thought and that therefore the relationships that

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The literature of a certain language is the set of written works and received up to the present. This definition is by no means a foregone conclusion and must be clarified in several respects. On the one hand, the definitions that have been given of the term, sensitive to different ideologies, world views, political or philosophical sensibilities,

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Deduction is defined as reasoning by which logically necessary conclusions are derived from certain premises; truth or judgment arrived at by this process | in com. usage, the act of inferring, of arguing; what is inferred, inferred: arbitrary deductions. Since the deductive method always starts from a postulate or an axiom, that is, from an absolute

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Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikós, “significant”) is that part of linguistics that studies the meaning of words (lexical semantics), of sets of individual letters (in and ancient alphabets) and sentences (phrasal semantics), and of texts. In linguistics, it was introduced in 1883 by M. Bréal to designate the until then neglected study of “the laws

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The soul (from Latin anima, connected with Greek ànemos, “breath”, “wind”), in many religions, spiritual traditions and philosophies, is the vital and spiritual part of a living being, commonly considered distinct from the physical body. Typically it was assimilated to the breath (hence its etymology). Originally an expression of the essence of a personality, understood as a

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Naturalism is a term common to currents of thought that consider nature, in all its aspects, not only as a fundamental object of philosophical reflection, but also, and above all, as a decisive and absolute point of reference with regard to the life and interests of humanity. Therefore the term naturalism can refer for example to:

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Les Nabis

Les Nabis is a pictorial movement that arose in France in the late nineteenth century by a group of young artists, all born between 1860 and 1870: Maurice Denis (1870-1943), Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Aristide Maillol, Felix Vallotton, Paul-Elie Ranson (1861-1909), Jan Verkade, Ker Xavier Roussel, G. Lacombe. The term, chosen by the painter

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Euclid of Alexandria

Euclid of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: Εὐκλείδης – Eukleídēs, lived c. 300 BCE, Alexandria, Egypt) systematized ancient Greek and Near Eastern mathematics and geometry. He wrote The Elements, the most widely used mathematics and geometry textbook in history. Older books sometimes confuse him with Euclid of Megara. Modern economics has been called “a series of footnotes to Adam Smith,”

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Language is a form of communication between two or more individuals by means of a determined complex of sounds, gestures, symbols, and movements endowed with meaning, which define a language common to a specific environment of interaction. Language is a complex physiological activity that requires, on the one hand, the integrity of the sensory pathways and,

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Theology (from the ancient Greek θεός, theos, God, and λόγος, logos, “word,” “discourse,” or “inquiry”) is a religious discipline that studies God or the characters that religions recognize as proper to the divine as such. Historical notes Since the revelation of God attested in Scripture is concentrated in the person of Jesus Christ, Christian theology is

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Neoclassicism began around 1750 and ended with the end of the Napoleonic Empire in 1815, as a logical consequence of the Enlightenment culture and an era of great revolutions, it is proposed as an antithesis to the excesses of the Baroque and Rococo. What distinguishes the artistic style of these years is, thanks to the many

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Humanism was a cultural movement, inspired by Francesco Petrarca and in part by Giovanni Boccaccio, aimed at the rediscovery of the Latin and Greek classics in their historicity and no longer in their allegorical interpretation, thus also inserting customs and beliefs of antiquity in their everyday life through which to start a “rebirth” of European culture

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To Italy [Giacomo Leopardi]

All’Italia, Giacomo Leopardi, translated by Frederick Townsend, 1818 My country, I the walls, the arches see,The columns, statues, and the towersDeserted, of our ancestors;But, ah, the glory I do not behold,The laurel and the sword, that gracedOur sires of old.Now, all unarmed, a naked brow,A naked breast dost thou display.Ah, me, how many wounds, what stains of

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Arabic philosophy

One can speak of Arabic philosophy with regard to historical phenomena that occurred in different cultural and religious spheres, which also differed according to the historical period and the geographical area in which they were located, but which are basically united by the use of the same language: Arabic. The term includes both the so-called Islamic or

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Jewish philosophy

We define as Jewish philosophy the philosophical ideas of those authors who lived in various geographical regions (in the Near and Middle East, in Europe and northern Africa) after the 1st century AD, who used different languages as a means of expression but who were united by two common characteristics: their Jewish ethnicity and their more or

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