Pathology of human heart
Pathology of human heart
Heart diseases (cardiovascular diseases) are the leading cause of death today. They are divided into acquired, congenital, traumatic and tumor-related heart diseases. Acquired heart diseases can be caused by infectious diseases, degenerative diseases (sclerosis), metabolic diseases (gout, diabetes), endocrine glands (Morbus Basedow), toxic factors (tobacco, alcohol), hypoxia, work and eating disorders. According to the localization of the pathological process we distinguish: endocarditis, when the endocardium and especially the heart valves are affected with deforming scarring results (valvular defects); myocarditis, when the disease affects the myocardium (stenocardial syndrome or angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart rhythm abnormalities, heart failure); pericarditis, when the disease affects the pericardium.
Congenital heart diseases, almost always associated with other anomalies, are transmitted by direct inheritance. The most frequent are: dextrocardias, interatrial communication (persistence of Botallo’s hole) and interventricular communication (or Roger’s disease), valvular stenosis and atresia, persistence of Botallo’s ductus arteriosus, tetrad and triad of Fallot, Eisenmenger’s complex. The possibility of corrective surgical therapy is conditioned by the precocity of the diagnosis, which is often difficult even with the most advanced techniques (angiocardiography, cardiac catheterization, ether test, phonocardiography, tomography and fluorocardiography).
Traumatic heart disease is caused by trauma to the chest (impact, compression, crushing), causing an immediate increase in blood pressure in the cardiac cavities; if the myocardium has an area of lower resistance, but not necessarily (scar tissue after an infarction), it gives way, becomes exhausted and there is an aneurysm or even rupture. Atherosclerotic heart disease is caused by hardening of the arteries. Hypertensive heart disease is caused by high blood pressure. In addition, the rhythm of the heart may deviate from the normal heartbeat, resulting in sinus arrhythmia, premature heartbeat, heart block, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, or paroxysmal tachycardia.
Tumors of the heart are rare; they are divided into primary, benign (myxoma, rhabdomyoma, fibroma, lipoma, angioma, leiomyoma) and malignant (sarcoma) and secondary metastatic, arising from tumors of organs in the chest and any other site.
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