Statistical hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is a branch of statistics that tries to evaluate the reliability of a hypothesis through the results of an experiment or a series of observations. The hypotheses considered can be the most varied and in the most disparate fields; that is, one can try to ascertain by experiment the validity of a natural law (in physics, in biology, etc.); or to check, through observations on an economic, social phenomenon, etc., if the trend of the phenomenon itself follows certain rules.

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