Applied Sciences


Epidemiology is the biomedical discipline that studies the distribution and frequency of diseases and events of health significance in the population. Using statistics, it collaborates with other disciplines such as preventive and clinical medicine, demography and sociology. It is concerned with analyzing the causes, course, and consequences of diseases. According to Last et al. (1998) epidemiology […]

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The metencephalon forms the cerebellum dorsally and its lumen forms the anterior portion of the 4th ventricle, which in some animals sends a diverticulum into the cerebellum. In Mammals, the ventral portion forms the Varolius bridge. The cerebellum is a nerve center of great importance in the coordination and regulation of motor activities and in the maintenance

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In geology, a rheid is a substance whose temperature is below the melting point and whose deformation by viscous flow during the time of observation is at least three orders of magnitude ((10^3)) greater than the elastic deformation under the given conditions. A material is a rheid by virtue of the time of observation. The term, coined

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Methotrexate is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant of a type known as an antimetabolite that interferes with the synthesis of folic acid, an essential component of cells. Methotrexate is a drug that counteracts folic acid synthesis and belongs to the class of drugs called antimetabolites. At high doses it counteracts cell growth and proliferation and is used

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Strain gauge

The strain gauge is a measuring instrument used to detect small dimensional deformations of a body subjected to mechanical or thermal stresses (eg application of loads or temperature changes). Knowing a priori the mechanical/physical characteristics of the material, by measuring the deformations it is easy to determine the loads to which the material is subjected. Moreover, by

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In metrology, extensimetry studies the measurement of deformation of materials, and consequently, the determination of the mechanical or thermal stress of bodies through knowledge of the elastic modulus (Young’s Modulus) of the stressed body. The devices used for these measurements are called strain gauges, they are transducers or resistive sensors, of which there are different

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The candela (cd) is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI); that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction. The units of luminous intensity based on flame or incandescent filament standards in use in various countries before 1948 were replaced initially by the

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The perceptron is a device born from a first draft of artificial neuron theorized by Warren Mc Culloch and Walter Pitts and later taken up by Frank Rosenblatt, in 1958, who developed an electromechanical machine consisting of potentiometers, motors, and photocells that would have the purpose of recognizing simple geometric shapes. It consists of a “retina” made

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Galvanization is an industrial chemical process of protection against corrosion (galvanic corrosion), in which a coating of zinc is applied to a metal item, hindering the formation of lettrolytic micro-cells with anodic action in the grain edges. Galvanization guarantees a long duration against atmospheric agents, without the need of periodical maintenance. The galvanized product at the

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In general, work is defined as a productive activity, which implies the implementation of rigorous and methodical, intellectual and/or manual knowledge, to produce and distribute goods and services in exchange for compensation, monetary or otherwise, an important topic of study for both social sciences (sociology, politics, law, economics) that the abstract and natural sciences (physics and geography).

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Viral load

Viral load is the quantity of viral particles present in the body of a person (or an organism), potentially transported and released into the environment; for example with coughing and sneezing. The higher the quantity, the greater the potential contagiousness of a person. The index that measures the viral load is the Cycle Threshold CT. What

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A laser optoelectronic device capable of emitting a coherent beam of light (a unidirectional, monochromatic radiation with a wavelength between infrared and ultraviolet) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser“ originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation“. The first laser was built

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Neptunism is a theory established at the end of the eighteenth century, especially thanks to the work of the German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner, according to which all rocks had a marine origin. The etymology is related to Neptune, in Roman mythology the god of water and sea. According to this theory, the center of the

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is one that is not due to any known external cause, with no apparent cause, so to speak primitive. It roughly means “a disease of its own kind”. Idiopathic (literally: having no known cause) is an adjective used primarily in medicine to indicate a disease not due to a known external cause, i.e., without apparent

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Anhidrosis (from Greek ἀνἱδρώς (anídrōsis), derived from ἀν-(án → inversion prefix) and ἱδρώς (hidrṓs → sweat); also called hypohidrosis, adiaphoresis, and oligohidrosis) in the medical field means the lack, or significant reduction, of skin perspiration, sweating, or perspiration. The term adiaphoresis is derived from: ἀν- (án → inversion prefix) and διαϕόρησις (diaphórēsis → perspiration), a derivative

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The term macrocephaly (from ancient Greek μακρός, macro, “long, large”; κεφαλή, kephalē, “head”), in human pathological anatomy, indicates a skull size greater than the 97th percentile of the comparison group of equal age and same sex. This abnormality may be evident in the newborn and may signal various conditions arising during embryonic development or in the first

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Luminous flux

In photometry, luminous flux (or luminous power) is a photometric quantity that measures the perceived power of light. The sensitivity of the human eye varies according to the wavelength of the light emitted. The luminous flux differs from the radiant flux, which is instead the measure of the total power of electromagnetic radiation emitted. The luminous flux

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Poly[methyl methacrylate]

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a plastic material formed from polymers of methyl methacrylate, the methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It is a thermoplastic polymer. It is also known by the trade names of Plexiglas, Perspex, Amanite, Lucite, Trespex, Vitroflex, Acrivill, Perclax, Limacryl, Crylux, Oroglas, Setacryl, Altuglas. It is a thermoplastic substance obtained by polymerization of methyl

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Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is one of the oldest and broadest fields of engineering. It deals with the properties and behavior of fluids, i.e., liquids and gases at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics). Because of their ability to flow, liquids and gases have many properties in common not shared by solids. The beginnings of modern

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Tribotronics is a field of application of tribology that deals with integrating active control loops into machinery where tribological phenomena occur to improve the efficiency of the machinery itself. Tribotronics addresses questions like: “How should we design self-sensing bearings, that can detect their own wear and upcoming failure?”, or “How can we design seals that can

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Plutonism is a theory proposed by the Scottish geologist James Hutton in the second half of the eighteenth century, according to which, in the processes generating rocks, should be taken into account also the magmatic ones, that is attributable to the “subterranean heat”. The name derives from Pluto, the ancient deity of Roman mythology, lord of

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Electromagnetic compatibility [EMC]

Electromagnetic compatibility (sometimes referred to by the acronym EMC), is a sub-discipline of electrical and electronic engineering, which deals with the analysis and optimization of unwanted effects produced by the unintentional generation, transmission and reception of electromagnetic energy, with the aim of ensuring the proper functioning in the same environment of various other electrical / electronic equipment

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Neurology is the specialized branch of medicine that studies the pathologies of the central nervous system (brain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord), of the peripheral somatic system (spinal roots and ganglia, nerve plexuses and trunks) and of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, extravisceral and intravisceral plexuses). Neurological knowledge relies heavily on discoveries

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