Organ

An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that coexist in organ systems. They represent spatially and morphologically defined parts of the body, form specialized work units and present characteristic relationships, structure and functions.

The organ is part and operates within a system or apparatus, which brings together different organs and allows the coordinated development of the complex of functions of several organs, depending on whether or not they have the same embryological derivation.

A relative simplicity of organization presented by the organs present in plants, is matched by a greater complexity with differentiation of many types of organs in the animal kingdom, the organization of tissues in organs is realized in multicellular organisms from the phylum of Platelminths and reaches the highest levels of complexity in higher vertebrates.

The organization of tissues into organs begins in the period of embryonic development at the end of gastrulation, and continues through the process of organogenesis, which consists of the spatial organization, multiplication, and differentiation of cells derived from the three different embryonic leaflets. The process of organogenesis takes on organ-specific characters and is characterized by the integration of cell differentiation and interactions between cell populations. Abnormalities of this process can result in malformations with different functional relevance depending on the organ involved, whether these abnormalities affect populations of undifferentiated cells or those undergoing differentiation.

Organ system

An organ system is a group of organs that work together as a biological system to perform one or more functions. Each organ does a particular job in the body and is made up of distinct tissues. There are eleven distinct organ systems in human beings, which form the basis of anatomy. Other animals have similar organ systems, although simpler animals may have fewer organs in an organ system or even fewer organ systems. Plants too have organs, such as flowers and leaves, and these are grouped into organ systems as well.

  • Respiratory system
  • Digestive system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Urinary system
  • Integumentary system
  • Skeletal system
  • Muscular system
  • Endocrine system
  • Lymphatic system
  • Nervous system
  • Reproductive system
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