Applied Sciences


Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that uses the transmission of high-frequency sound waves into the body to generate an echo signal that is converted by a computer into a real-time image of anatomy and physiology. Ultrasonography is the least invasive of all imaging techniques, and it is therefore used more freely in sensitive situations such as […]

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For sound insulation or soundproofing (or acoustic shielding) means all those actions aimed at limiting the unwanted sound and noise transmission, usually by introducing sound-absorbing materials in the path of the sound waves. The application fields where insulation or soundproofing measures are necessary are many, including recording studios, rehearsal rooms, cinemas, and environments dedicated to audio-video, residential, offices, and public places, industry,

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Aboral, literally “standing away from the mouth”: compound word, of Latin origin, derived from ab (from) and os, oris (mouth); its opposite is adoral or, simply, oral. The term is used in anatomy to indicate the opposite direction or location of the mouth, the pole opposite the oral pole: when speaking of localizations, or directions,

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Gross anatomy

Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (related to the structure that can be seen through naked eyes) or macroscopic level; it is studied using both invasive and noninvasive methods with the goal of obtaining information of the macroscopic structure and organization of organs and

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Medical physics

Medical physics (also called health physics) is the scientific discipline whereby the concepts and methodologies of physics are applied to medicine. Two fields have assumed particular prominence: cancer radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging. Radiotherapy, traditionally based on the use of massive doses of radiation produced by cobalt 60 (cobalt therapy) and X-ray irradiation, has been progressively integrated

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An etiopathogenesis is defined as the analysis of the causes and development of a disease or abnormal condition. The term derives from the union of “etiology” and “pathogenesis”, which in the medical field indicate, respectively, the causal factors (etiology) and the mechanism of onset, and subsequent development, of a disease process (pathogenesis). The etiopathogenesis may be certain

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Rotation is defined as rigid movement having as fixed points a point called center (in two dimensions) or a straight line called axis (in three dimensions) of rotation. This movement shifts all points around the center, or axis, by a fixed angle. In other words a rotation is the movement of a body following a circular

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Pathogenesis investigates the development of a disease and the chain of events associated with it, which step by step determine morphofunctional changes in cells and tissues belonging to the affected organs. These alterations can be caused by chemical, physical, or biological agents (viruses, bacteria, etc.). We could therefore define pathogenesis as the mechanism by which an

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Roto-translation (rigid transformation)

The rigid transformation (or roto-translation motion) is the composition between reflection, translation, and rotation, and therefore it is an isometry, that is, a geometric transformation that leaves the distances unchanged. In other words, we can think of roto-translation as a rigid movement in which a geometric figure first rotates and then translates. The rototranslation motion of a rigid body

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Fowl cholera

Fowl cholera (also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia) an infectious disease affecting almost all birds, sustained by Pasteurella multocida, a gram-negative, immobile, asporiginal, facultative anaerobic bacterium. Affected birds are most often chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese, guinea fowl, rarely pigeons and pheasants. Healthy carriers are very important in the spread of the disease; in fact, in the

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A hydrophone (Ancient Greek: ὕδωρ + φωνή, lit. ’water + sound’) is a microphone designed to be used underwater for recording or listening to underwater sound. Most hydrophones consist of a piezoelectric transducer that translates mechanical energy resulting from a change in pressure into electrical energy. Some piezoelectric materials, or transducers, can convert a sound into an electrical

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The myelencephalon contains the medulla oblongata or bulb and is the caudocranial continuation of the spinal cord. It is the lower part of the brain stem. It protrudes, in its lower part, for a short distance outside the foramen magnum of the occipital bone. Externally it shows an anterior, two lateral and one posterior face. On the

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An airlock, air-lock or air lock, is a compartment with doors which can be sealed against pressure which permits the passage of people and objects between environments of differing pressure or atmospheric composition while minimizing the change of pressure in the adjoining spaces and mixing of environments. Airlocks find application in many fields, especially in:

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Permanent tissue

Permanent tissues may be defined as a group of living or dead cells formed by meristematic tissue and have lost their ability to divide and have permanently placed at fixed positions in the plant body. Meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide. This process of taking up a permanent shape,

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The term “resistance” can take on different meanings depending on the context: Grammar Noun, countable and uncountable.Plural: resistances. Etymology From earlier resistence.From Middle English resistence.From Old French resistence.From Latin resistentia.Morphologically: resist +‎ –ance. Pronunciation IPA: /ɹɪˈzɪstəns/ Synonyms – friction, obstacle;stubbornness, inflexibility, opposition, obstinacy, refractoriness, reluctance, tenacity;– (of what) firmness, consistency, durability, hardness, sturdiness, steadfastness, solidity;– (of character) constancy, firmness, perseverance, forbearance, tolerance;– (sports)

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The pous (plural podes; from Greek: ποῦς, poûs) or Greek foot (plural feet) was a Greek unit of length. It had different values varying according to the city and the historical period. 100 podes made up one plethron, 600 podes made up a stade (the Greek furlong) and 5000 made up a milion (the Greek mile). The Greek pous also has long, median and short forms.

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Hertz [Hz]

The hertz (symbol Hz, named in honor of the 19th-century German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. \[1\;\textrm{Hz}=\dfrac{1}{s}\] Given any phenomenon consisting of an event that repeats itself periodically, the frequency of this phenomenon is defined as the number of repetitions of the event

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Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial nerve in humans and various other animals that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, one of the extraocular muscles responsible for outward gaze. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The nerve originates from the nucleus of the abducens nerve of the pons tegmentum, emerges

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Epidemiology is the biomedical discipline that studies the distribution and frequency of diseases and events of health significance in the population. Using statistics, it collaborates with other disciplines such as preventive and clinical medicine, demography and sociology. It is concerned with analyzing the causes, course, and consequences of diseases. According to Last et al. (1998) epidemiology

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